Do Alterations in Irrigation Frequency and the Foliar Applications of Plant Bio-Regulators on Berseem Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) affect the Abundance and Activities of Pollinators?

Ram Prasad Ghimire, Rita Amgain


The implementation of research findings to improve the seed yield and quality of Berseem clover can potentially disturb the abundance and behaviors of pollinators, leading to reduced pollination and seed setting. To evaluate the impact of irrigation frequencies combined with the number of plant bio-regulator sprays on pollinators’ visitation and activities, a study was conducted at the research site of Directorate of Agricultural Research, Khajura, Banke. The study employed a Randomized Complete Block Design, with 12 treatments and three replications. The experimental treatments involved combinations of irrigation frequencies of one, two, three, and four times @ 666.67 kiloliters of water ha-1 applied at 15-day intervals after one-cut at 60 days after sowing and one, two, and three foliar sprays of plant bio-regulators (P2O5 @ 2 kg ha-1 + KNO3 @ 4 kg ha-1) administered at 7-day intervals during the pre-flowering stage. The results of the study indicated that the population abundance of pollinators, foraging duration on Berseem clover flowers, and pollinator diversity did not show significant differences (P>0.05) among the treatments. The findings support the elevation of irrigation frequency and plant bio-regulator sprays for Berseem clover seed plants, considering the perspectives of pollinator populations and activities.


Diversity, Duration, Foraging, Honey bee, Pollinators’ population

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