Ecological Importance and Economic Uses of Selected Native and Invasive Alien Grasses across Five Diverse Anthropo-Ecosystems in the Indian Dry Tropics

Chandan Yadav, Maneesh Kumar Lomas, Arvind Kumar, Rup Narayan

Abstract


Due to a significant intrusion of alien grasses from different areas of the world, the vegetation in the dry tropical urban environments of India has seen a dramatic change that has had a significant impact on vegetation structure, ecological processes, and better adaptive potential. Grass species demonstrate a wide variety of environmental tolerance and taxonomic diversity, making them suitable as pioneer species in an ecosystem. The anthropogenic ecosystems of the Meerut district are home to a broad variety of foreign and indigenous grasses as a result of its distinctive topography, bioclimatic conditions, and quick development. The current ecological and taxonomical investigation of various habitats revealed the occurrence and their distribution of 32 species of grasses spread over 4 families, dominated by Poaceae (78.1%) followed by Cyperaceae (15.6), Juncaceae (3.1%), and Typhaceae (3.1%). These aliens’ plants through successful naturalization homogenization of floristic structure. In conclusion, the present study revealed a heavy scale of intrusion (40.6%) by the weedy herbs dominated by American alien grasses (18.8%) followed by other continents (Europe, Asia, and Africa) into standing vegetation anthropic sites in urban regions in Indian dry tropics. Which is likely to alter the standing vegetation floristic structure with a larger abundance of alien flora. These grasses have been variously utilized as food, fodder, medicine gene resources, thatch, ropes, paper, traditional cosmetics, soil erosion management, and land reclamation as well as for environmental and societal purposes

Keywords


Ecology, Spikelet, Taxonomy, Plant invasions, Urban sprawl, Economic importance

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