Biochemical and Histo-pathological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Napoleonaea imperialis Leaves against Methotrexate- Induced Renal Damage in Albino Rats

Kenneth C. Nwachukwu, Joseph O Mba, Godwin S. Aloh, Odo, C.E., Michael P. Okoh

Abstract


We investigated the biochemical activity of Napoleonae imperialis leaves extracts, within the context of its potential to fight human diseases. For the experiment the biochemical and histological effects of methanol extract of Napoleonae imperialis leaves against methotrexate (MTX) renal damage in albino rats were evaluated. To do this, sixty male albino rats ((30) each, used for the biochemical and histological experiments), mean weight 130 g. The animals were grouped into five (5), six (6) rats each. Group A (normal control) received feed and water only; Group B (positive control), induced with MTX without treatment. Test groups (C and D) were orally given 250 mg and 500 mg/kg b.wt of leaves extract; group E was orally given the extract only (500 mg/kg b.wt), for 14 days. Similar groupings were done for the histological study. All the experimental animals were subjected to renal damage using 0.5 ml/kg of MTX except the normal control group. The rats were sacrificed after 14 days, blood samples collected for biochemical analysis, for the histological, the kidney was carefully dissected from the abdominal region. The biochemical results, showed significant (p< 0.05) decrease in the groups that received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg b.wt of the extract in (Urea, Creatinine and Na+ ), significant increase (p< 0.05) in  K+ and Cl-. Also there were significant (p< 0.05) decrease in (Urea, Creatinine, and Na+) in comparison with control groups; the group that received the extract only (500 mg/kg b.wt), and a significant increase (p< 0.05) in (K+ and Na+). Histologically, photomicrographs showed group A, (normal control group) with evenly distributed glomeruli of smaller size, normal mesangial cellularity; group B, (positive control group) there was significant pathology including interstitial inflammation; groups (C and D) (tests group that received 250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt of the extract), no significant pathology and group E, no significant pathology. Our results indicates, methanol extract of Napoleonae imperialis leaves, have exerted positive renal functioning effects in albino rats. Moreover, the histology indicates, the leaves extract may have exerted nephron-protective effects in albino rats, and may be important also for pharmacological usage towards management of organ toxicity.


Keywords


Renal histology, methotrexate, histopathological, biochemical examination, Napoleonae imperialis, kidney, plant extracts

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