The Impact of Integrated and Balanced Fertilization on the Productivity of Olive Crop and its Quality in New Land

Mahmoud M. Abd El-Fattah, Osama A. Nofal, Abdel Halim I. Rezk, Adel B. El-Nasharty, Faiza A. Mohamed, Hatem M. El-Sanosy

Abstract


Olive is one of the agricultural incomes in Egypt. The total area of olive in old, new and republic lands ranged between (25, 173, 198) thousand feddans respectively as average for the period (2006-2019). Where the search values showed that the olive total area in old lands decreased to 3.37 thousand feddans and the exchange rate represents about 13.05%,  the reverse was true with olive total area in new and republic were increased to (14.74 , 11.37) thousand feddans respectively. Moreover, the results indicated that the annual average of olive fruit area in old, new and republic lands gained (22, 129, 150) thousand feddans respectively. In addition, the olive total area in old lands reached to 3.45 thousand feddans with exchange rate about 15.10%.  In contrary, olive fruit area in new and republic enhanced by about (12.86, 9.41) thousand feddans respectively. On the other side, the values showed that the annual average of olive total production in old, new and republic lands recorded (102, 557, 659) thousand tons respectively. Meanwhile, the olive total production in old lands decreased to 17.59 thousand tons with exchange rate about 16.62%, where, the olive total production in new and Republic lands reached (66.28 and 48.68 ) thousand tons respectively. From another point, the values presented that the annual average of olive productivity in old, new and republic lands showed to (4.58, 4.24, 4.31) ton /fed.Respectively. Furthermore, these values pointed to a relative stability of the productivity for both types of lands during the search period.  Concerning geographical distribution of olive fruit area in Egypt, the information of annual average in outside the valley amounted to 83.6 thousand feddans during the period (2006-2019) by represent about 64.90% from total republic mounted to 128.8 thousand feddans. In this connection, Matrouh Governorate occupied the first arrangement of olive fruit area followed by Noubaria sector represented by 25 and 24,8 thousand feddans respectively, at the outside the valley with representing an area of the total cultivated land of the Republic by 19.41 %, 19,25% respectively. However, the productivity average of both gained 79.2, 165.7 thousand tons with representing 14.2, 29.70 % from the total cultivated land of republic. As for applying Integrated and balanced fertilization program (IBF), the results showed that using the program led to increase olive yield over the normal farm fertilization (NFF).Where Picual cultivar achieved the maximum yield which amounted to 28.9 kg/tree, while amounted to 23 kg/tree with applying (NFF) program. Regarding olive oil percent, Picual cultivar recorded the maximum oil percent which represents about 20.7% with applying (IBF), however, with applying (NFF) the oil percent showed 17.6%. From another point, the correlation between leaf nutrient contents of olive and yield showed a positive correlation where (K) recorded the maximum with for all cases. Furthermore, a positive correlation between leaf nutrient contents of olive and oil percent  obtained  with N,Cu,Ca,P,Zn,Fe While, the negative correlation gained with N ,Mg,Mn.  As for chemical fertilizer units (nitrate, phosphate and potassium) which were used in production of olive in new lands, the results of production functions for units cleared that these fertilizer units were used well and achieved the maximum of productivity, according to drip irrigation system and Integrated Balanced Fertilization Program (IBF).Meanwhile, the search results showed that the revenue and net return from the four olive cultivars (Picual, Manzanello, Coratina, Egazy) increased with using Integrated Balanced Fertilization Program (IBF) and drip irrigation system compared to Normal Farm Fertilization (NFF), where the total revenue amounted to (9472, 8784, 7997, 6752) pound/fed. for the four olive cultivars respectively. Whereas, total revenue amounted to (7538, 7145, 6424, 5178) pound /fed. for the four cultivars respectively using (NFF). It is worth to observe that the net return amounted to (2850, 2162, 1375, 130) pound/fed. for the four olive cultivars respectively using (IBF) and drip irrigation system compared to (NFF) which amounted to (916, 523, -198,-1444) pound/fed. for the four olive cultivars (Picual, Manzanello, Coratina, Egazy) respectively





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