Production of cellulase enzyme by Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp. isolated from soil

Pinky Dayal, Alok Narain Singh, Ajai Kishore Sharan


This research was aimed to isolate cellulolytic fungi showing hyper-cellulase activity. Potential cellulase-producing fungi were isolated from different soil samples, particularly near agro-wastes dumping sites. Among the various isolates obtained from different sampling sites, three different fungi were selected depending upon the clear zone diameter produced in Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) agar. CMC hydrolysis by all three fungal strains exhibited their activities at pH 5.5-7.5, whereas maximum activity occurred at pH 5.5. Enzymes were also pH stable. Based on Km and Vmax values, the endoglucanase and β-glucosidase enzymes of Aspergillus niger were most efficient. The characterization of these fungi may also provide an opportunity to screen the cellulase enzymes   for their further utilization in bio-ethanol production using lignocellulosic agro-wastes.


Cellulolytic fungi; Cellulase Endoglucanase; β-glucosidase

Full Text:



Akram F, Haq I, Imran W, Mukhtar H, Insight perspectives of thermostable endoglucanases for bioethanol production: A review. Renewable Energy, 2018, 122, 225-238.

Alam MZ, Manchur MA, Anwar MN, Isolation, Purification, Characterization of Cellulolytic Enzymes Produced by the Isolate Streptomyces omiyaensis. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 2008, 7,1647-1653.

Bhat MK, Cellulases and related enzymes in biotechnology. Biotechnology Advances, 2000, 18, 355-383.

Bajaj BK, Pangotra H, Wani MA, Sharma P, Sharma A, Partial purification and characteri-zation of a highly thermostable and pH stable endoglucanase from a newly isolated Bacillus strain M-9. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 2009, 16, 382–387.

Bakare MK, Adewale IO, Ajayi A, Shonukan OO, Purification and characterization of cellulase from the wild-type and two improved mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2005, 4 (9), 898-904.

Camassola M, Dillon AJP, Production of cellulases and hemicellulases by P. echinulatum grown on pretreated sugar cane bagasse and wheat bran in solid-state fermentation. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2007, 103, 2196-2204.

Chang X, Minnan L, Xiaobing W, Huijuan X, Fengzhang Z, Liangshu X, Zhongan, C, Screening and Characterization of the High-Cellulase-Producing Strain Aspergillus glaucus XC9, Frontiers of Biology in China, 2006, 1(1), 35-40.

Coughlan M, Cellulose degradation by Fungi. Applied Science, London, UK, 1990, 1-36.

Dashtban M, Maki M, Tin Leung K, Mao C, Qin W, Cellulase activities in biomass conversion: measurement methods and comparison. Critical Review of Biotechnology, 2010, 30(4), 302-309.

Depaula EH, Ramos LP, Azevedo MD, The potential of Humicolagrisea var. Thermoidea for bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse. Bioresource Technology, 1999, 68, 35-41.

Doi RH, Cellulase of mesophilic microbes: cellulosome and non–cellulosome producers. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2008, 1125, 267-279.

Dutta T, Sahoo R, Sengupta R, Ray SS, Bhattacharjee A, Ghosh S, Novel cellulases from an extremophilic filamentous fungi Penicillium citrinum: production and characterization. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 2008, 35 (4), 275-282.

Eijsink V, Gåseidnes S, Borchert T, Burg VD, Directed evolution of enzyme stability. Biomolecular Engineering, 2005, 22(1-3), 21-30.

Gautam SP, Bundela PS, Pandey AK, Jamaluddin, Awasthi MK, Sarsaiya S, Diversity of cellulolytic microbes and the biodegradation of municipal solid waste by a potential strain, International Journal of Microbiology, 2012: 325907.

Gilman JC, A manual of soil fungi. 2nd Edition, Oxford & IBH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, 1975, pp 382.

Grigorevski-Lima AL, Da Vinha FNM, Souza DT, Bispo ASR, Bon EPS, Coelho RRR, Nascimento RP, Aspergillus fumigatus thermophilic and acidophilic endoglucanases. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2009, 155(1-3), 321-329.

Immanuel G, Dhanusha R, Prema P, Palavesam A, Effect of different growth parameters on endoglucanase enzyme activity by bacteria isolated from coir retting effluents of estuarine environment, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2006, 3, 25-34.

Khatiwada P, Ahmed J, Sohag, MH, Islam K, Azad AK, Isolation, Screening and Characterization of Cellulase Producing Bacterial Isolates from Municipal Solid Wastes and Rice Straw Wastes, Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques, 2016, 6:4.

Lee YJ, Kim BK, Lee BH, Jo KI, Lee NK, Chung CH et al., Purification and characterization of cellulase produced by Bacillus amyoliquefaciens DL-3 utilizing rice hull. Bioresource Technology, 2008, 99, 378-386.

Lineweaver H, Burk D, The determination of enzyme dissociating constants. Journal of the American Chemical Society USA, 1934, 56, 658-666.

Lynd LR, Weimer PJ, vanZyl WH, Pretorius IS, Microbial cellulose utilization: fundamentals and biotechnology. Microbiology and Molecular Bibliology Reviews, 2002, 66 (3), 506-577.

Madhavan S, Mangalanayaki R. Effect of cellulase production by fungi cultured on banana waste. International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience, 2016, 4, 256–262.

Maki ML, Broere M, Tin Leung K, Wensheng Q, Characterization of some efficient cellulases producing bacteria isolated from paper mill sludges and organic fertilizers. International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2011, 2(2), 146-154.

Mawadza C, Hatti-Kaul R, Zvauya R, Mattiasson B, Purification and characterization of cellulases produced by two Bacillus strains. Journal of Biotechnology, 2000, 83(3), 177-187.

Mosjov K, Microbial cellulases and their applications in textile processing. International Journal of Marketing and Technology, 2012, 2(11), 12-29.

Iqbal HMN, Ahmed I, Zia MA, Irfan M, Purification and characterization of the kinetic parameters of cellulase produced from wheat straw by Trichoderma viride under SSF and its detergent compatibility. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 2011, 2,149-156.

Nagamani A, Kunwar IK, Manoharachary C, Hand book of soil fungi, I.K.International Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 2006, pp 478.

Nehad EA, Yoness MF, Reem AA, Optimization and purification of cellulase produced by Penicillium decumbens and its application. Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal, 2019, 18, 391-402.

Nour MS, Mohd NA, Ariff A, Mohamad R, Mustafa S, Optimization of cellulase production by Aspergillus terreus under submerged fermenta-tion using response surface methodology, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2010, 4(12), 6106-6124.

Ohkuma M, Termite symbiotic systems: Efficient biorecycling of lignocellulose. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2003, 61, 1-6.

Ogel ZB, Yarangumeli K, Du H, Ifrij J, Submerged cultivation of Scytalidium thermophi-lum on complex lignocellulosic biomass, Enzyme Microbial Technology, 2001, 28, 689-695.

Sadhu S, Saha P, Sen SK, Mayilraj S, Maiti TK, Production, purification and characterization of a novel thermotolerant endoglucanase (CMCase) from Bacillus strain isolated from cow dung. SpringerPlus, 2013, 2:10

Shanmughapriya S, Kiran GS, Selvin J, Thomas TA, Rani C, Optimization, purification and characterization of extracellular mesophilic alkaline cellulase from sponge-associated Marinobacter sp. MSI032. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2010, 162 (3), 625-640.

Shin CS, Lee JP, Park SC, Enzyme production of Trichoderma reesei Rut C–30 on various lignocellulosic substrates, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2000, 86, 237-245.

Tao YM, Zhu XZ, Huang JZ, Ma SJ, Wu XB, Long, MN, Chen, QX, Purification and properties of endoglucanase from a sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzing strain, Aspergillus glaucus XC9, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2010, 58(10), 6126-6130.

Teather RM, Wood PJ, Use of Congo red-polysaccharide interactions in enumeration and characterization of cellulolytic bacteria from the bovine rumen. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1982, 43, 777-780.

Vinha FNM, Gravina-Oliveira MP, Franco MN et al., Cellulase production by Streptomyces viridobrunneus SCPE-09 using lignocellulosic biomass as inducer substrate. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2011, 164(3), 256-267.

Wang CW, Cellulolytic enzymes of Volvariella volvacea, The Chinese University Press, Hong-kong, 1982, 167-185.

Wang, S, Lv, M, Yang, J, Zhou, Y, Xu, B (2018). Effects and mechanism of metal ions on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw after pretreatment, BioResources, 13(2), 2617-2631.

Watanabe H, Tokuda G, Animal cellulases. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2001, 58, 1167-1178


Copyright (c) 2020 Annals of Plant Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.