Cover Image

Harnessing of local plant species by indigenous people of Hamirpur district for ethno-veterinary purposes

Anand Narain Singh, Chongtham Nirmala, Ram Chand Bhatti, Aman deep Kaur, Siril Singh, Pardeep Kumar Mor, Rupinder Kaur


Traditional medicines have been playing significant role in livestock health care management since long especially in remote area. This paper is based on a field survey conducted to collect information for curing different ailments utilized by local people and tribals in the Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh. Total 541 households were interviewed involved as informants with fully prepared questionnaires; proper interaction along with group discussion. Information were collected from the selected sites regarding way to cure different ailments of animals which was further analyzed for the authenticity of data through different statistical quantitative indices. We found total 121 plant species belonging to 61 families that have been documented to be of common use for curing 78 different types of livestock. Total ailments were categorized into fifteen major categories based on the body organ systems of livestock. The highest number of ethno-medicinal plants were recorded from family Fabaceae followed by Asteraceae and other families. Leaves were the most commonly used part of the plant for the preparation of ethno-medicinal medicines followed by other plant parts. Achyranthes aspera, Acorus calamus, Pogostemon benghalensis are the most important plants used to cure different ailments on the basis of use value index. On the basis of Informant Consensus factor (FIC), diseases related to digestive system, reproductive system, respiratory and fever were considered as major ailments in the livestock. In conclusion, we found in this study that most of the plants are widely used to cure different ailments as reported previously by different workers. However, on the first hand, many new findings to cure different ailments of livestock have been found during this survey indicating need for conducting more studies to get valuable information from the local community which are not documented yet. It was also found that indigenous people have excellent information with respect to ethnoecological aspect. There is an urgent need to study and document the traditional uses before they are disappeared from the society or community and further study must be integrated with qualitative and quantatitative data to assess importance of plants for ethno-veterinery purposes. 


Ethno-veterinary, Traditional uses, Informants, Tribal Community and Livestock.

Full Text:



Abbasi AM, Khan MA, Shah MH, Shah MM, Pervez A and Ahmad A. Ethno botanical appraisal and cultural values of medicinally important wild edible vegetables of lesser Himalayas. Pakistan Journal of Ethno biology and Ethno Medicine 9(2013):1-13.

Abbasi AM, Khan SM, Ahmad M, Khan MA, Quave CL and Pieroni A. Botanical ethno veterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine (2013) 9:84.

Acharya KP and Acharya M. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Sardikhola VDC, Kaski district. Nepal. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4.2 (2009):235–239.

Al Mamun A, Tumpa SI, Hossain MI and and Ishika T. Plant resources used for traditional ethno veterinary phytotherapy in Jessore District, Bangladesh. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 3.6 (2015): 260-267.

Ali-Shtayeh MS and Jamous RM. Traditional Arabic Palestinian ethno veterinary practices in animal health care: A field survey in the West Bank (Palestine). Journal of Ethno pharmacology 182 (2016):35-49.

Arunadevi R and Anantharaj M. Ethno botanical Survey of Plants Used for Respiratory Disorders in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Traditional and Natural Medicines 3.1(2013): 32-38.

Aziem S, Chamola BP, Subhasis M and Pala NA. Utilization and Traditional Knowledge of Ethno-Veterinary Medicinal Plants in Tehri District of Garhwal Himalaya, India. International Journal of Indigenous Medicinal plants 46.2 (2013):1330-1337.

Babu R, Kakraliy SK, Prakash L, Kumar P and Yadav RA. Effect of Plant Geometry and Seed Rates on Growth, Yield Attributes, Productivity as well as Weed Dynamics of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 63.3(2017): 81-88.

Badola HK and Pal M. Threatened medicinal plants and their conservation in Himachal Himalaya. Ind Forestry 129 (2003):55–68.

Banumathi B and Vaseeharan B. A Report on Medicinal Plants Used in Ethno Veterinary Practices of Toda Tribe in the Nilgiri Hills. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 6.5 (2015):1-6. doi:10.4172/2157-7579.1000245

Beigh SY, Nawchoo IA and Iqbal M. Traditional Veterinary Medicine among the Tribes of Kashmir. Himalaya Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants 10.4 (2003): 121- 127.

Bhanotra A and Gupta J. Mapping of indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) on animal healthcare and validation of ITKs used for treatment of pneumonia in dairy animals. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 15.2 (2016): 297-303.

Bharati KA and Sharma BL. Plants used as Ethno veterinary Medicines in Sikkim Himalayas. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 10 (2012):339-356.

Bharati KA and Sharma BL. Some ethno veterinary plant records for Sikkim Himalaya. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 9.2 (2010): 344-346.

Bhatia H, Sharma YP, Manhas RK and Kumar K. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the villagers of district Udhampur, J&K India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 151 (2014): 1005–1018. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.017.

Birhanu T and Abera D. Survey of ethno-veterinary medicinal plants at selected Horro Gudurru Districts. Western Ethiopia. African Journal of Plant Science 9.3(2015):185-192. doi: 10.5897/AJPS2014.1229

Chand R, Kaur R, Kaur A, Kumar V, Nirmala C and Singh AN. Assessment of ethnomedicinal plant diversity of Una and Hamirpur District of Himachal Pradesh, India: An ethno-ecological approach. Annals of Plant Sciences 5.12 (2016): 1475-1490.DOI:

Chand R, Singh AN and Nirmala C. Ethno-ecological Survey of Underutilized Plant Diversity of Hamirpur District, Himachal Pradesh, India: An Edibility Assessment, Environment and Ecology Research 5.1(2017):12-28. doi: 10.13189/eer.2017.050103

Chassagne F, Hul S, Deharo E and Bourdy G. Natural remedies used by Bunong people in Mondulkiri province (Northeast Cambodia) with special reference to the treatment of 11 most common ailments. Journal of Ethno pharmacology 191(2016): 41-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.06.003

Chaudhary RP. Plants used in the treatment of domestic cattles in Narayani zone (central Nepal). In: Proceedings of IInd National conference on Science and Technology, 8-11 June 1994, Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Tehnology, RONAST, Kathmandu, Nepal. 1(1994):835–847.

Chaudhary MI, He Q, Cheng YY and Xiao PG. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants from Tian Mu Shan biosphere reserve, Zhejiang-Province, China. Asian J. Planet Sci 5 (2006): 646-653.

Chhavi M and Mishra D. Ethno veterinary Practices and use of herbal medicines for treatment of skin diseases in cattle: A study in Polsara Block, Ganjam District, Orissa, India. Veterinary World 4.6 (2011): 250-253.

Chhavi S, Sushma D, Ravinder V, Anju D and Asha S. Recent update on proficient bone fracture revivifying herbs. International Research Journal of Pharmacy 2.11(2011): 3-5.

Chaudhary HJ and Wadhwa BM. Flora of Himachal Pradesh, Vol.1, 2 and 3. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, West Bengal, 1984.

Confessor MA, Mendonca LET, Mourao JS And Alves RRN. Animals to heal animals: ethnoveterinary practices in semi-arid region, Northeastern Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 5.37(2009): 1-9.

Devi K, Karthikai GD, Thirumaran G, Arumugam R, Anantharaman P. Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from Parangipettai coastal regions, India. World Applied Sciences Journal 7.9(2009): 1212-1215.

Dhanam S and Elayaraj B, Ethno veterinary Practices in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India. International Letters of Natural Sciences 24 (2014):1-7.

Dwivedi SK. Overview of ethno-veterinary practices in India. In ICAR Summer Short Course on Techniques for Scietific Validation and Evolution of Ethno-veterinary Practices, August 3-12 1998, Division of Medicine, IVRI, Izatnagar, India. 1-5.

Friedman J, Yaniv Z, Dafni A and Palewitch D. A preliminary classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants, based on a rational analysis of an ethnopharmacological field survey among Bedouins in the Negev Desert, Israel. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 16(1986):275- 287.

Gadpayale JV, Khobragade DP and Chaturvedi AA. Traditional Ethno-Veterinary practices in Bhandara district (M.S.) India. International Journal of Sciences & Applied Research 1.2 (2014): 91-99.

Galav P, Jain A, Katewa SS and Nag A. Animal health care practices by livestock owner at Pushkar Animal fair, Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 9.3 (2010): 581-584.

Gaur RD, Sharma J and Painuli RM. Plants used in traditional healthcare of livestock by Gujjar community of Sub-Himalayan tracts, Uttarakhand India. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 1.2 (2010): 243-248.

Gazzaneo LRS, Paiva de Lucena RF and Paulino de Albuquerque U. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in a region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2005, 1:9 .doi:10.1186/1746-4269

Giday M and Ameni G. An ethnobotanical survey on plants of veterinary importance in two woredas of southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Science 26.2 (2003):123–136.

Heinrich M, Ankli A, Frei B, Weimann C and Sticher O. Medicinal plants in Mexico: Healers' consencus and cultural importance. Social Science & Medicine 47(1998):1863–1875.

Hoffman B and Gallaher T. Importance Indices in Ethnobotany. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 5(2007):201-218.

Juyal Pand and Ghildiyal JC. Indigenous Animal Health Care Practices from Garhwal, Himalaya. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 1.4(2013): 148-151.

Kalayou S, Haileselassie M, Gebre-Egziabher G, Tiku'e T, Sahle S, Taddele H and Ghezu M.In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethno veterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2.7(2012): 512-522.

Kanwar P and Yadav Dinesh. Indigenous animal health care practices of Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 4.2 (2005): 164-168.

Khan FM. Ethno-veterinary medicinal usage of flora of greater Cholistan, Desert (PAKISTAN). Pakistan Veterinary Journal 29.2 (2009): 75-80.

Khateeb AM, Khandi SA, Kumar P, Bhadwal MS, Jeelani R. Ethno-veterinary practices used for the treatment of animal diseases in Doda district, Jammu & Kashmir. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 14.2 (2015): 306-312.

Krishna L, Swarup D and Patra RC, An overview of prospects of ethno-veterinary medicines in India. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 75 (2005):1481-1491.

Kulkarni S, Kulkarni DK, Deo AD, Pande AB and Bhagat RL. Use of Ethno-veterinary medicines (EVM) from Vidarbha region (MS) India. Bioscience Discovery 5.2 (2014):180-186.

Kumar N and Choyal R. Ethnobotanical notes on some plants of Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh used in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism and other inflammatory disorder. Indian Journal of Plant Science 1.2&3 (2012): 1-8.

Kumarei P, Singh BK, Joshi GC and Tiwari ML. Veterinary Ethno medicinal Plants in Uttarakhand Himalayan Region, India. Ethno botanical Leaflets 13 (2009): 1312-1327.

Kumari RR, Nirmala RK, Singh PK, Das AK, Dutta BK and Pinokiyo A. Ethno veterinary plants used by the Chiru tribes of Manipur, Northeast India. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 13.2 (2014): 368-376.

Lulekal E, Asfaw Z, Kelbessa E and Damme PV. Ethnoveterinary plants of Ankober District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 10.21(2014) 1-19.

Mahwasane ST, Middleton L, Boaduo N. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used by the traditional healers of the Lwamondo area, Limpopo province, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 88 (2013) 69–75.

Maiti S, Chakravarty P, Garai S, Bandyopadhyay S, Chouhan VS. Ethno-veterinary practices for ephemeral fever of Yak: A participatory assessment by the Monpa tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 12.1 (2013): 36-39.

Malik BK, Panda T and Pandhy RN. Ethnoveterinary practices of aborigine tribes in Odisha, India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012):1520-1525.

Malla B and Chhetri RB. Ethno veterinary practices of some plant species by ethnic people of Parbat District, Nepal. Kathmandu University Journal of Science Engineering and Technology 8.1 (2012) 44-50.

Manoj Y and Ekta G. Ethno veterinary practices of livestock owners in animals at Pushkar, Rajasthan, India. International Research Journal of Environment Sciences 3.4(2014): 1-4.

Marina and Mathias, Evelyn & McCorkle, Constance(ed), Ethno-veterinary Medicine-An Annotated Bibliography of Community Animal Health Care. Pub. ITDG Publishing, London. 2001

Martin GJ. Ethnobotany, A methods manual, London: Chapman and Hall. 1995: 102-104.

Meena ML, Sharma NK and Singh D. Ethno veterinary treatment of sheep in Marwar region of Rajasthan, India. Indian Journal of Animal Research 49.5 (2015): 662-670. doi: 10.18805/ijar.5580.

Merwea D, Swana GE and Botha CJ. Use of ethno veterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 72.4 (2001):189–196.

Mishra D and Patro L. Ethno veterinary practices among the rural people of Ganjam district (Orissa) India: A case of common veterinary ailments. The Bioscan. International Journal of life science 3 (2010):739-746.

Mishra N, Panda T and Singh RR. Phototherapeutic Veterinary Practice in Kendrapara, District, Odisha, India. International Journal of Science and Nature 6.2(2015):228-237.

Mishra NK, Das R and Srivastava DK. Ethno-medicinal weeds of veterinary importance from Dullapathar frontier region of district Sonebhdra (South East U.P.). Indian Journal of Life Science 2.1(2012):109-111.

Misra KK and Kumar A. Ethno-veterinary practices among the Konda Reddi of East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. Studies of Tribes and Tribals 2.1(2004): 37-44

Mohammad G, Khan MZ, Hussain MH, Iqbal Z, Iqbal M and Athar M. Ethno veterinary practices of owners of pneumatic- Cart pulling Camels in Faisalabad City. Pakistan. Journal of Ethno pharmacology 97 (2005): 241-246. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.11.008

Muhammad Ishtiaq Ch, Khan MA and Hanif W. Ethno Veterinary Medicinal Uses of Plants from Samahni Valley Dist. Bhimber, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 5: 390-396.

Musa A, Oladiran JA, Ezenwa MIS, Akanya HO and Ogbadoyi EO. Effect of heading on some micronutrients, anti-nutrients and toxic substances in Amaranthus cruentus grown in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 1.2(2011): 147-154

Pal RS, Kumar RA, Kant L and Bhatt JC. Wild edible potential nutraceutical fruit in Indian Himalayan region. Popular Kheti, 2.3 (2014): 199-203.

Panda SS and Dhal NK. Plants used in ethno veterinary medicine by Native people of Nawarangpur district, Odisha, India. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 3.7(2014): 787-798.

Pande PC, Tiwari L and Pande HC. Ethno veterinary plants of Uttaranchal-A review. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 6.3 (2007): 444-458.

Pandit PK. Inventory of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants of Jhargram division West Bengal, India. Indian Forester 136(2010):1183–94.

Parthiban R, Vijaykumar S, Prabhu S and Yebesh JGEM. Quantitative traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat livestock diseases from Kudavasal taluk of Thiruvarur district, Tamil Nadu, India. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 26.1(2016):109-121. http:/

Phillips OL, Gentry AH, Reynel C, Wilkin P and Galvez-Durand C. Quantitative ethnobotany and Amazonian conservation. Conservation Biology 8(1994):225-248.

Phondani PC, Maikhuri RK and Kala CP. Ethno veterinary uses of medicinal plants among traditional herbal healers in Alaknanda Catchment of Uttarakhand, India. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 7.3 (2010):195-206.

Pragada PM and NarasimhaRao GM. Ethno veterinary Medicinal Practices in tribal regions of Andhra Pradesh, India. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 19.1(2012): 7-16.

Rajkumari R, Nirmala RK, Singh PK, Das AK, Dutta BK and Pinokiyo AB. Ethno veterinary plants used by the Chiru tribes of Manipur, Northeast India. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 13.2 (2014): 368-376.

Ramachandra Naik M, Venugopalan V, Kumaravelayutham P and Krishnamurthy YL. Ethno veterinary uses of medicinal plants among the Lambani Community in Chitradurga district, Karnataka, India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012): 470-476. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60256-1

Raveesha HR and Sudhama VN. Ethno - veterinary Practices in Mallenahalli of Chikmagalur Taluk, Karnataka Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 3.1(2015): 37-41,

Rawat DS and Kharwal AD. Study on traditional herbal pediatrics practices in Jaisinghpur, district Kangra (Himachal Pradesh, India). Global Journal Research Medicinal Plants and Indigenous Medicine 2.4 (2013): 219-230.

Reang I, Goswami S, Pala NA, Kumar M and Bussmann RW. Ethno veterinary Applications of Medicinal Plants by Traditional Herbal Healers in ReangTribeo South District Tripura, India. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 5.2 (2016):1-4.

Saha MR, Sarkerand DD, Sen A and Pande PC. Ethno veterinary medicines in Indian perspective: Reference to practices among tribal community of Malda district of West Bengal, India. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 13.2 (2014):359-367. doi: 10.5455/jice.20140630022609

Salave AP, Sonawane BN and Reddy PGD. Traditional. Ethno veterinary practices in Karanji Ghat areas of PathardiTahasil in Ahmedanaar district (M.S.) India. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences 2.1(2012), 64-69.

Salave AP, Sonawane BN and Reddy PGD. Traditional ethno-veterinary practices in Karanjighat areas of Patharditahasil in Ahmednagar district (M.S.) India. International Journal of Plant, animal and environmental science 2.1(2011):2231-449.

Samal PK, Shah A, Tiwari S, Mehra B and Aggarwal DK. Indigenous animal health care practices in Indian Central Himalaya: Empirical evidences. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 2.1 (2003): 40-50.

Sehgal AB and Sood SK. Ethnoveterinary Practices for Herbal Cure of Livestock Used by Rural Population of Hamirpur, (H.P.) India. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 3.1(2013): 7-14.

Selvaraju A, Ayyanar M, Rathinakumar SS and Sekar T. Plants used in ethno-veterinary medicine by Malayalitribals in Salem district of Tamil Nadu, India. Medicinal Plants 3.3 (2011): 1-7.

Shah GM, Ahmad M, Arshad M, Khan MA, Zafar M and Sultana S. Ethno-phyto-veterinary medicines in Northern Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences 22.3(2012): 791-797.

Shah R, Pande, Tiwari L. Traditional veterinary herbal medicines of western part of Almora district, Uttarakhand Himalaya. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 7.2 (2008): 355-359.

Sharma A, Santvan VK, Sharma P and Chandel S. Ethno veterinary Practices in Jawalamukhi, Himachal Pradesh, India. Research in Plant Biology 4.2 (2014): 31-36.

Sharma P K, Chauhan NS and Lal B. Study on plants associated indigenous knowledge among the Malanis of Kulu district, Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 4.4(2005): 403-408.

Sharma R and Manhasb RK. Ethno veterinary plants for the treatment of camels in Shiwalik regions of Kathua district of Jammu & Kashmir, India. Journal of Ethno pharmacology 169 (2015): 170–175. doi: 0378-8741/&2015

Sharma R, Manhasb RK and Magotraa R. Ethno veterinary remedies of diseases among milk yielding animals in Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of Ethno pharmacology 141(2012): 265– 272. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.027.

Sher H and Aldosari A. Ethno botanical survey on plants of veterinary importance around Al-Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 7.21(2013):1404-1410. doi 10.5897/AJPP2012.2177

Singh KR and Community B. Indigenous knowledge of yak breeding and management by Brokpa community in eastern Himalaya, Arunachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 8.4 (2009): 495-501.

Singh R and Misri B. Traditional goat health management practices in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 5.3 (2006): 373-375.

Sri Balaji N and Vikrama Chakravarthi P. Ethno veterinary Practices in India – A Review. Veterinary World 3.12(2013):549-551.

Sumeet D, Abhishek D and Paras G. Role of Plants as Veterinary Medicine from Madhya Pradesh, India: A Status Survey. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2.4 (2009):688-690.

Suroowan S, Kayani S, Javeed F and Jafar M. Ethno veterinary health management practices using medicinal plants in South Asia- a review. Veterinary Research Community 41(2017):147-168. doi: 10.1007/s11259-017-9683-z

Tabuti JRS, Dhillion SS and Lye KA. Ethno veterinary medicine for cattle (Bos indicus) in Bulamogi country Uganda: plant species and mode of uses. Journal of Ethnopharmachology 88 (2003): 279-286. doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00265-4

Tariq A, Mussarat S Adnan M, Abdelsalam NM, Ullah R and Khan AL. Ethno veterinary study of medicinal plants in a tribal society of Sulaiman Range. The Scientific World Journal 10.1155 (2014) 127526.

Tebkew M, Zebene Asfaw Z and Zewudie S. Underutilized wild edible plants in the Chilga District, northwestern Ethiopia: focus on wild woody plants, Agriculture & Food Security, 3(2014): 12.

Tekle Y. Study on ethno veterinary practices in Amaro Special district Southern Ethiopia, European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research 2.3 (2015): 01-20.

Thakur M, Asrani RK, Thakur S, Sharma PK, Patil RD and Lal B. Observations on traditional usages of ethnomedicinal plants in humans and animals of Kangra and Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh in North-Westren Himalaya, India. Journal of Ethno pharmacology 191(2016): 280-300. doi: 10.1016/j.jep. 2016.06.033.

Tiwari L and Pande PC. Ethno veterinary medicines in Indian perspective: Reference to Uttarakhand, Himalaya. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 9.3 (2010): 611-617.

Tiwari L and Pande PC. IndianTraditional veterinary practices in south-eastern part of Chamoli district, Uttaranchal. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 3.4 (2004): 397-406.

Tiwari L and Pande PC. Indigenous veterinary practices of Darma valley of Pithoragarh district, Uttaranchal. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 5.2 (2006): 201-206.

Verma RK. An ethno ecological study of plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Tikamgarh district of Bundelkhand, Central India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 4.1(2014): 460-467. doi:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1067

Yadav M and Gupta E. Ethno veterinary Practices by Livestock Owners in Animal Fair at Pushkar, Rajasthan, India. International Research Journal of Environment Sciences 3.4(2014): 1-4.

Yadav M, Yadav A and Gupta E. Ethno Veterinary Practices in Rajasthan, India – A Review. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences 1.6 (2012): 80-82.

Yadav SS, Bhukal RK, Bhandoria MS, Ganie SA, Gulia SK and Raghav TBS. Ethno veterinary Medicinal plants of Tosham block of district Bhiwani (Haryana) India. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 4.6 (2014): 040-048. doi: 10.7324/JAPS.2014.40606.


Copyright (c) 2017 Annals of Plant Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.