Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by medicinal plants: A Review

Navi Ranjan*, Manorma Kumari

Abstract


Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the predominant cholinesterase in the brain, hydrolyzes ACh to choline and acetate, thereby terminating the effect of this neurotransmitter at cholinergic synapses. Therefore, AChE is the target of cholinesterase inhibitors used for addressing the cholinergic deficit in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Despite decades of research and advances in our understanding of its aetiology and pathogenesis, current pharmacotherapeutic options for AD are still very limited and represent an area of need that is currently unmet. The leading AD therapeutics involves AChE inhibitors, resulting in increased acetylcholine concentrations in the synaptic cleft and enhanced cholinergic transmission. Compounds showing an AChE inhibitory effect are also used for the treatment of senile dementia, myastenia gravis, Parkinson’s disease and ataxia. Taking into account that the inhibition of AChE has been one of the most used strategies for treating AD and that existing drugs are effective only against mild to moderate type of disease while presenting considerable side effects, the search for new sources of effective and selective anti acetylcholinesterase agents with fewer side effects is imperative. Various plants and phytochemical substances have demonstrated AChE inhibitory activity and thus could be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.


Keywords


Alzheimer’s disease (AD); Acetylcholine (ACh); Acetylcholinesterase (AChE); Medicinal Plants.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21746/aps.2017.06.003

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