Yield and water use efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L.) relative to scheduling of irrigations

Shaik Jaffar Basha*, Sitha Rama Sarma A.


Irrigation scheduled at seven days’ interval during vegetative stage and four days’ interval during reproductive stage resulted in significantly higher panicle number and panicle weight, filled grains panicle-1 and grain yield. Permanent irrigation and interval irrigation methods had higher yield in comparison with saturated irrigation method in rice. Dry seeded rice significantly increased the water productivity with respect to irrigation water over wet seeded and transplanted rice. Intermittent irrigation in rice cultivation may reduce irrigation water use considerably (27-37%) compared with flooded rice cultivation. aerobic rice significantly required less water (67.91 ha-1 cm) to produce higher or on par yield as compared to transplanted puddled rice (122.59 ha-1 cm). Similarly, WUE was significantly higher in aerobic rice (81.31 kg ha-1 cm) as compared to transplanted rice (36.12 kg ha-1 cm). The irrigation schedule having three days’ drainage period after disappearance of ponded water yielded rice higher with maximum water use efficiency compared to continuous submergence or submergence at critical stages such as tillering, panicle initiation, flowering and milk, followed by saturation or field capacity between intermittent periods.


Irrigation schedules; Rice; water requirement; water use efficiency; yield

Full Text:



Allahyar. “Interactive effects of nitrogen and irrigation methods on the growth and yield of rice in Amol area.” Intl. J. Agri. Crop Sci., 3.4 (2011):111-113.

Ambrocio, Bouman, Shaobing and Romeo. “Mitigating water scarcity through an aerobic system of rice production”. In: Proc. of the 4th Intl. Crop Science Congress, 26 Sep – 1 Oct, (2004) Brisbane, Australia (available online at www. cropscience. org. au/icsc 2004).

AvilKumar, Reddy, Reddy and Sadasiva Rao. “Effect of irrigation scheduling on performance of summer rice.” Oryza, 43.2 (2006): 97-100.

Balasubramanian and Krishnarajan. “Economics of direct seeded wetland rice under different water management practices.” Oryza, 38.1 & 2 (2001):69-71.

Bandi, Prarhakar and Krlshnamurthy. “Performance of rice varieties at various spacing under aerobic method of cultivation”. Proc.of Nation. Sem. on Rice and Rice based System for Sustainable Productivity. (2005):164-165.

Bas Bouman and Mia Aureus. “Every drop counts.” Rice Today, 8.3 (2009):16-18.

Basavaraju, Somasekhar, Rukmini, Satisha, Naryanappa, Kavitha, Ashok and Nagaraju. “Performance of aerobic rice under tank command situation in central dry zone of Karnataka.” Proc.of Nation. Sem. on Rice and Rice based System for Sustainable Productivity. (2005):112-113.

Behrouz, Fatemah, Sayad and Mohammad. “Effect of irrigation water management on yield and water use efficiency of rice in cracked paddy soils.” Australian J. Crop Sci., 4.3 (2010): 136-141


Belder, Bouman, Spiertz, Peng, Castaneda and Visperas “Crop performance, nitrogen and water use in flooded and aerobic rice.” Plant and Soil, 273 (2005): 167–182.

Bouman. “Water efficient management strategies in rice production.” Intl. Rice Res. Note., 16.2 (2001): 17-22.

Bouman and Tuong. “Field water management to save water and increase its productivity in irrigated rice.” Agric. Water Mngt., 49.1 (2001) : 11-30.

Bouman, Yang, Wang, Wang, Zhao, Wang and Cheng. “Aerobic rice (Han Dao) : a new way of growing rice in water-short areas.” In: Proc. of the 12th Intl. Soil Conser. Organization Conf., 26-31 May, 2002, Beijing, China Tsinghua University Press. (2002):175-181.

Bueno, Bucourt, Kobayashi, Inubushi and Lafarge. “Water productivity of contrasting rice genotypes grown under water-saving conditions in the tropics and investigation of morphological traits for adaptation.” Agric. Water Mngt.,98 (2010): 241–250.

Cabangon, Tuong, Bouman, Feng and Zhang. “Irrigation management effects on yield and water productivity of inbred and aerobic rice varieties in Kaiting, IRRI, Phillipines. (2001): pp. 27.

Castaneda, Bouman and Vispcras. The potential of aerobic rice to reduce water use in water scarce irrigated lowlands in the tropics. Water wise Rice Production, 8-11 IRRI, Philippines, (2002):165-176.

Chang, Yang, Bouman, Deng, Zhang, Yan, Zhang, Rouzi and Wang. “Optimizing yield, water requirements and water productivity of aerobic rice for the North China Plain.” Irrig. Sci., 26.6 (2008): 459-474.

Cui, Xue, Yang, Yang, Zhang, Wang and Bouman. “Field evapotranspiration characteristics and water use efficiency of aerobic rice under different water treatments.” Trans. of the Chinese Soc. of Agric. Engg., 24.4 (2008): 9-54.

Denesh, Jayadeva and Bhairappanavar. “Water requirement and yield of drum seeded rice-rice cropping system.” Mysore J. Agric. Sci., 47.2 (2013): 337-341.

Devender. “Water management and Aerobic rice.” Paper presented at XXXIV Research and Extension Advisory Council Meeting, March 28-29, 2005 of Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. (2005): pp. 20-23.

Ebrahim, Fereshteh,Marl and Harmid. “Evaluation effect of different nitrogen fertilizer rates under irrigation management in rice farming.” World Appl. Sci. J., 13.5 (2011):1248-1252.

Ghosh, Rao, Singh, Dash, Samal, Pandey, Kumar and Zhao. “Conserving water in rice cultivation- its potential and prospect under looming crisis of water resources.” 4th World Congress on Conser. Agric., (2009): 161-162.

Jadhav, Dhoble and Dahiphale. “Irrigation and nitrogen management for upland irrigated rice on vertisols.” J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ., 28.1 (2003): 103-104.

Kadiyala, Mylavarapu, Li, Reddy and Reddy. “Impact of aerobic rice cultivation on growth, yield, and water productivity of rice–maize rotation in semiarid tropics.” Agron. J., 104.6 (2012): 1757-1765.

Kato, Okami and Katsura. “Yield potential and water use efficiency of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Japan.” Field Crops Res., 113.3 (2009):328-334.

Kumar, Reddy, Reddy and Sadasiva Rao. “Effect of irrigation scheduling on performance of summer rice.” Oryza, 2006, 43.2 (2006): 97-100.

Lafitte and Bennett. “Requirements for aerobic rice: physiological and molecular considerations” In: Water-wise Rice Production, IRRI, Phillippines and PRI, Netherlands. (2002): 259-274.

Mahajan, Timsina and Kuldeep. “Performance and water-use Efficiency of rice relative to establishment methods in north-western indo-gangetic plains.” J. Crop Improv., 25.5 (2011): 597-617.

MallaReddy, Padmaja, Veeranna and Vishnu Vardhan Reddy. “Response of aerobic rice to irrigation scheduling and nitrogen doses under drip irrigation.” J. Res. ANGRAU, 41.2 (2013): 144-148.

Latheef, Reddy, Reddy and UmaDevi. “Effect of irrigation schedule, weed management and nitrogen levels on weed growth in rice (Oryza sativa) under aerobic conditions.” Indian J. Weed Sci., 43 (2011): 1-2.

Midori, Yoichiro and Junko. “Grain Yield and Leaf Area Growth of Direct-Seeded Rice on Flooded and Aerobic Soils in Japan.” Plant Prod. Sci., 2013, 16.3 (2013): 276-279.

Murali, Shankar, Ramanagowda and Krishnamurthy. Irrigation scheduling in aerobic rice compared with farmers practice of lowland rice. Fifth Asian Regional Conf. during 6-11, December, New Delhi, India. (2009).

Naoki and Toshihiro. Growth and yield of six rice cultivars under three water saving cultivations. Plant Prod. Sci., 12.4 (2009): 514-525.

Nguyen, Fischer and Fukai. Physiological responses to various water saving systems in rice. Field Crops Res., 112 (2009): 189-198.

Nieuwenhuis, Bouman and Castaneda. “Crop-water responses of aerobically grown rice: preliminary results of pot experiments.” In: Water-wise Rice Production, IRRI and Pl. Res. Intl., (2002):177-185.

Noor, Ramachandrappa, Nanjappa, Mudalagiriappa, Shankaralingappa and Shailaja. “Effect of irrigation Schedules on growth and yield of Aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes.” Mysore J. Agric. Sci., 47.1 (2013): 94-99.

Qinghao, Visperas and Mcclang. “Contribution of rice tiller to dry matter accumulation and yield.” Agron. J., 90 (2002): 317-323.

Qinghua, Xiaochun, Muying, Xueming and Fengfeng. “Effect of different water management practices on rice growth.” In: Water-wise Rice Production, IRRI, Phillippines and PRI, Netherlands, (2002) : 3-13.

Ramanamurthy and Reddy. “Effect of irrigation and weed management practices on Nutrient uptake and Economics of production of Aerobic rice.” J. Agric. Veter. Sci., 3.1 (2013): 15-21.

Romeo, Cabangon, Phuc, Ernesto, Castillo, Lang, Guoan, Guangho, Yuanlai, Bouman, Yuanhua, Chongde and Jianzhang. “ Effect of irrigation method and N-fertilizer management on rice yield, water productivity and nutrient-use efficiencies in typical lowland rice conditions in China.” Paddy Water Environ., 2 (2004): 195–206.

Saharawat, Bhagat, Malik, Gathala, Jat, RajGupta and Ladha. “Productivity, water use and income of the rice-wheat systems with alternative tillage and crop establishment methods in a rice-wheat rotation in north western IGP. 4th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, (2009):127.

Shaobing, Bouman, Romeo, Ambrocio, Lixiao and Hong. “Comparison between aerobic and flooded rice in the tropics: Agronomic performance in an eight-season experiment.” Field Crops Res., 96 (2006): 252-259.

Shekara, Sharnappa and Krishnamurthy. “Effect of irrigation schedules on growth and yield of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) under varied levels of farmyard manure in Cauvery command area.” Indian J. Agron., 55.1 (2010): 35-39.

Singh, Khokhar, Yadav and Verma. “Water Economy in paddy.” Indian Farming, 2003, 53.9 (2003): 27.

Thyagarajan and Selvaraju. “Water-saving rice cultivation in India.” In : Proc. of Intl. Workshop, Water-Saving Rice Production Systems, Nanjing University, China, April 2-4, 2001. Plant Research International, Wageningen, Report 33, (2001): 15-45.

Tran, Trinh, Chu, Pham and Roland. “Effect of seeding rate and nitrogen management under two different water regimes on grain yield, water productivity and profitability of rice production.” Omonrice, 16 (2008): 81-87.

Venkatesh, Rudresh, Shivamurthy and Shailaja. “Performance and adoption of new aerobic rice variety MAS 946-1 (Sharada) in southern Karnataka.” Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 25.1 (2012): 5-8.

Wang, Bouman, Dule, Wang and Moya. “Aerobic rice in Northern China :Oppurtunities and Challenges.” In: Water-wise Rice Production, IRRI, Phillippines and PRI, Netherlands, (2002):143-154.

Xianqing, Weijun, Defeng, Huizhe and Yuping. “Nitrogen accumulation, remobilization and partitioning in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under an improved irrigation practice.” Field Crops Res., 96 (2006): 448–454.

Yang, Wang, Wang, Chan and Bouman. “Yield of aerobic rice (Han Dao) under different water regimes III North China.” In: Water-wise Rice Production (Eds.), IRRI. (2002):155-163.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21746/aps.2017.02.005

Copyright (c) 2017 Annals of Plant Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.