Foraging Behaviour of Indian Flying Fox P.giganteus in Kerala

Prasad E. R.*, Dileep P., Aryasree M. P., Anjana K., Sunojkumar P.

Abstract


Over one year period, field study was conducted for the identification of food plants and seed dispersal of Pteropus giganteus by direct observations or indirectly by the analysis of eject found on ground.  Observation were made on seven colonies of day roost in undisturbed areas, amongst which six of them were in sacred grooves one in the protected area.  Over 22 different plant seeds were collected from the ejected materials as chewed fruits, fresh seeds or faecal materials.  The result indicates that Pteropus is playing a vital role as a seed disperser in plants like Anacardium occidentale, Areca catechu, Manilkara achras, Mangifera indica and Psidium gujava which are highly demanding plants in the market. The study concluded the mutual relationship between plants and fruit bat, flying foxes depends plants for food and roost while plants need bat as disperser and pollinator.

Keywords


P.giganteus; Kerala; field study

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aguirre L, Herrel A, van Dammee R and Matthysen E. (2002). Ecomorphological analysis of trophic niche partitioning in a tropical savannah bat community. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269: 1271 –1278.

Banack SA (1998). Diet selection and resource use by flying foxes (genus Pteropus). Ecology 79:1949-1967.

Bhat HR (1994). Observations on the food and feeding behaviour of Cynopterus sphinx Vahl (Choropter, Pteropodidae) at Pune, India. Mammalia 58: 363-370

Brooke AP (2001). Population status and behaviours of the Samoan flying fox (Pteropus samoensis) on Tutuila Island, American Samoa. J. Zool. Lond. 254: 309-319.

Carpenter RE (1986) Flyightphysiology of intermediate-sized fruit bats (Pteropodidae). J. Exp. Biol. 120: 79-104.

Charles-Dominique P (1993). Tent use by the bat Rhinophylla pumilio (Phyllostomidae: Carollinae) in French Guiana. Biotropica 25: 111-116.

Constantine DG (1970). Bats in relation to the health, welfare and economy of man. In: Wimstt, W.A. (Ed.) Biology of bats, Vol. 11, Academic Press, New York and London, Pp. 319-499.

Corlett RT (1998). Frugivory and seed dispersal by vertebrates in the Oriental (Indomalayan) region. Biol. Rev. 73: 413-448.

Courts SE (1998). Dietary strategies of Old World fruit bats (Megachiroptera, Pteropodidae): how do they obtain sufficient protein. Mammal. Rev. 28:185-194.

Dumont ER. (1999). The effect of food hardness on feeding behaviour in frugivorous bats (Phyllostomidae): an experimental study. J. Zool. Lond . 248: 219-229.

Elangovan V, Marimuthu G and Kunz TH. (1999). Temporal patten of individual and group foraging in the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, South India. J. Trop. Ecol. 15: 681- 687.

Elangovan VG, Marimuthu and TH. Kunz. (2000). Nectar feeding behaviour in the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae). Acta Chiropter. 2:1-5.

Fenton MB, Brigham RM, Mills AM and Rautenbach IL (1985). The roosting and foraging areas of Epomophorus wahlbergi (Pteropodidae) and Scotophilus viridis (Vespertilionidae) in Kruger National Park, South Africa. J. Mammal. 66: 461-468.

Figueiredo RA and Perin E (1995). Germination ecology of Ficus luschnathiana druplets after bird and bat ingestion. Acta Oecologica 16: 71-75.

Fleming TH (1982). Foraging strategies of plant visiting bats. In: Ecology of bats, Kunz, T. H. (Ed.). 287-25.New York: Plenum press.

Fleming TH (1993). Plant-visiting bats. Amer. Sci. 81:460-467.

Fujita MS and Tuttle MD (1991). Flying foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae): threatened animals of key ecological and economic importance. Conserv. Biol. 5: 455-463.

Ganzhorn JU (1992). Leaf chemistry and the biomass of folivorous primates in tropical forests. Ecologia 91: 540-547.

Gardner AL 1977. Feeding habits. Pages 293-350 in R. J. Baker, J. K. Jones, Jr.., and D. C. Carter, eds. Biology of bats of the New World family Phyllostomatidae. Miscellaneous Publication no.13 of the Museum, Texas Tech University, Lubbock. Vol. 2.

Knudsen JT and Kiltgaard BB (1998). Floral scent and pollination in Browneopsis disepala (Leguminosae: Cesalpiniodae) in Western Equator. Britania. 50: 174-182.

Kunz TH (1984). Halloween treat: bat facts and folklore. Amer. Biol. Teacher 46: 394-399.

Kunz TH and Diaz CA (1995). Folivory in fruit-eating bats, with new evidence from Artibeus jamaicensis (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Biotropica 27: 106-120.

Kunz TH and Ingalls KA (1994). Folivory in bats: an adaptation derived from frugivory. Funct. Ecol. 8: 665-668.

Kunz TH (1982). Roosting ecology of bats. Pp. 1-56 in: Ecology of bats (T. H. Kunz, ed.). Plenum Press, New York.

Kunz TH (1996). Obligate and opportunistic interactions of Old-World tropical bats and plants. In: Conservation and faunal biodiversity in Malaysia. Hansan, Z. A. A. and Akbar, Z (Eds.). Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi.

Kunz TH and Lumsden LF (2003). Ecology of cavity and foliage roosting bats. In: Ecology of bats. Kunz, T. H. and Fenton, M. B. (Eds.). University of Chicago press, Chicago.

Laska M (1990). Olfactory sensitivity of food odour components in the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera). J. Comp. Physiol. A 166: 395-399.

Liberman, M and Liberman, D. (1986). An experimental study of seed ingestion and germination in a plant-animal assemblage in Ghana. J. Trop. Ecol. 2: 113-126.

Marshall AG (1983). Bats, flowers and fruit; evolutionary relationship in the Old World. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 20:115-135.

McCann C (1934). Notes on the flying fox (Pteropus giganteus Brunn.). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 37: 143 –149.

McCann C (1941). Further observations on the flying on the flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) and the fulvous fruit-bat (Rousettus leschenaulti Desm.). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 42: 587-592.

Marshall AG and McWilliam AN (1982). Ecological observations on epomophorine fruit-bats (Megachiroptera) in West Africa savanna woodland. J. Zool. Lond. 198: 53-67.

Morrison DW (1980). Efficiency of food utilization by fruit bats. Oecologia 45: 270-273.

Neuweiler G (1969). Verhaltensbeobachtungen an einer indischen Flughundkolonie (Pteropus giganteus Brunn.). Z. Tierpsychol. 26: 166-199.

O’Barien TG, MF Kinnard, ES Dierenfeld, NL Conklin, RW Wrangham and Silver SC (1998). What’s so special about figs? Nature 292: 668.

Phua PB and Corlett RT (1989). Seed dispersal by the lesser short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus branchyotis, Pteropodidae, Megachiroptera). Malayan Nat. J. 42: 251-256.

Rasweiler JJ (1977). The care and management of bats as laboratory animals. In: Biology of bats, Wimastt, W. A. (Ed.). Academic press, Newyork.

Richards GC (1990). The spectacled flying fox, Pteropus conspicillatus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), in North Queensland. 1. Roost sites distribution patterns. Austral. Mammal. 13:17-24.

Singaravelan N and Marimuthu G (2004). Nectar feeding and pollen carrying from Ceiba pentandra by pteropodid bats. J. Mammal. 85: 1-7.

Taylor RJ and NM Savva, 1988. Use of roost sites by four species of bats in state forests in south-eastern Tasmania. Aust Wildl Res 15:637–645.

Tedman RA and Hall LS (1985). The morphology of the gastrointestinal tract and food transit time in the fruit bats Pteropus alecto and Pteropus poliocephalus (Megachiroptera). Aust. J. Zool. 33: 625-640.

Terborgh J, (1986). Community aspects of frugivory in tropical forests. In: Frugivores and seed dispersal, Estrada, A. and Fleming, T. H. (Eds.). 371-384. Hingham, Massachusetts: Dr. W. Junk Publishers.

Thomas DW (1984). Fruit intake and energy budgets of frugivorous bat. Physiol. Zool. 57:457-467.

Thomas SP (1975). Metabolism during flight in two species of bats, Phyllostomus hastatus and Pteropus gouldii. J. Exp. Biol. 63: 273-293.

Van der Pijl L. (1957). The dispersal plants by bats (Chiropterochory). Acta Bot. Neerland. 6: 291-315.

Zortea M and Mendez SL (1993). Folivory in the big fruit eating bat Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Biotropica 27: 106-120.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2014 Annals of Plant Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.