Family Solanaceae: Taxonomy and modern trends

  • Masood Majaz Ganaie Department of Botany, Govt. Degree College, Tral, J&K -192123
  • Zaffar Ahmad Reshi Department of Botany, Kashmir University Srinagar, J&K -190006
  • Vijeshwer Verma Biotechnology Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jummu, J&K
  • Vaseem Raja Vaseem Raja PhD. Research Scholar Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory University Of Kashmir
Keywords: Solanaceae, petunia, phylogenetic studies, biosystematic research


Solanaceae belongs to that group of families, which are included in almost all angiosperm classifications indicating naturalness of the family. The family being one of the most evolutionarily successful and advanced taxa shows astonishing level of diversity reflected in the form of various types of adaptations. The high level of diversity within the family in addition to other unusual features have reflected in poor understanding of its phylogenetics. Fossil record of angiosperms particularly of Solanaceae) is very meager and relatively recent, so use of morphology and other conventional characters is not convincing in revealing true phylogeny of the family. This all has necessitated using alternative marker types in phylogenetic analysis of the family. Since advent of molecular biology molecular markers have been constantly refined to serve the purpose. Solanaceous species, such as tomato, potato, chilli pepper, tobacco, and petunia serve as model systems for the investigation of molecular and agronomic questions, and the family is the subject of intensive phylogenetic studies that are providing new insights into species boundaries and generic relationships. Results from recent morphological, molecular, and biosystematic research have shed new light on the systematic relationships in the family at virtually all taxonomic levels from subfamily to variety.


Ahmad SM, Verma V, Qazi PH, Ganaie MM, Bakshi SK and Qazi GN. “Molecular phylogeny in Indian Tinospora species by DNA based molecular markers. Plant Systematics and Evolution.” 256 (2006): 75-87.

Aagaard GE, Krutovskii KV and Strauss SH. “RAPD markers of mitochondrial origin exhibiting lower population diversity and higher differentiation than RAPDs of nuclear origin in Douglas fir. Molecular Ecology.” 7 (1998): 801-812.

Amsellem LJ, Noyer L, Le Bourgeois T and Hossaert-Mckey M. “Comparison of genetic diversity of the invasive weed Rubus alceifolius Poir. (Rosaceae) in its native range and in areas of introduction, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Molecular Ecology.” 9 (2000): 443-455.

Anderson GJ, Bernardello G, Bohs L, Weese T and Santos-Guerra A. “Phylogeny and biogeography of the Canarian Solanum vespertilio and S. lidii (Solanaceae). Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid.” 63 (2006): 159-167.

Ando, T., Kokubun H, Watanabe H, Tanaka N, Yukawa T, Hashimoto G, Hashimoto E, Marchesi E, Suarez E and Basualdo IL. “Phylogenetic analysis of Petunia sensu Jussieu (Solanaceae) using chloroplast DNA RFLP.” Annals of Botany. 96 (2005): 289-297.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2009): 105– 121.

Atienzar F, Evenden A, Jha A., Savva D and Depledge M. “Optimized RAPD analysis generates high quality genomic DNA profiles at high annealing temperatures.” BioTechniques. 28 (2000): 52-54.

Axelius B. “The phylogenetic relationships of the physaloid genera (Solanaceae) based on morphological data.” American Journal of Botany. 83 (1996): 118-124.

Baldwin BG. “Phylogenetic utility of internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA in plants: An example from the Compositae.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 1 (1992): 3-16.

Baldwin BG and Markos S. “Phylogenetic utility of the external transcribed spacer (ETS) of 18S-26S rDNA: Congruence of ETS and ITS trees of Calycadenia (Compositae).” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 10 (1998): 449-463.

Bauhin C. Pinax Theatri Botanici .Basel. 1623

Bena G, Jubier MF, Olivieri I and Lejeune B. “Ribosomal external and internal transcribed spacers: Combined use in the phylogenetic analysis of Medicago (Leguminosae).” Journal of Molecular Evolution. 46 (1998.): 299-306.

Bentham, G. and Hooker J D. Genera Plantarum. L. Reeve & Co., London. 1862-1883.

Besansky NJ, Severson DW and Ferdig MT. “DNA bar coding of parasites and invertebrate disease vectors: What you don’t know can hurt you.” Trends in Parasitology. 19 (2003): 545-546.

Bindler G, Van der Hoeven R, Gunduz I, Plieske J, Ganal M, Rossi L, Gadani F and Donini F. “A microsatellite marker based linkage map of tobacco.” Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 114 (2007): 341-349.

Bohs L. “Insights into the Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae) complex in Costa Rica. II. Insect visitors and pollination biology of W. asterotricha and W. meiantha. Biotropica.” 32 (2000.): 80-89.

Bohs L. “A revision of Solanum section Cyphomandropsis (Solanaceae).” Systematic Botany Monographs. 61 (2001): 1-85.

Bohs, L. “Major clades in Solanum based on ndhF sequence data. In: R. C. Keating, V. C. Hollowell and T. B. Croat (eds.). A Festschrift for William G. D'Arcy: The Legacy of a Taxonomist.” Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis (2005): 27-49.

Bohs L. and Olmstead R.G. “Phylogenetic relationships in Solanum (Solanaceae) based on ndhF sequences.” Systematic Botany. 22 (1997): 5-17.

Bohs L and Olmstead RG. “A reassessment of Normania and Triguera (Solanaceae).’ Plant Systematics and Evolution. 228 (2001): 33-48.

Borisjuk N and Hemleben V. “Nucleotide sequence of the potato rDNA intergenic spacer.” Plant Molecular Biology. 21 (1993): 381-384.

Borisjuk NV, Davidjuk YM, Kostishin SS, Miroshnichenco GP, Velasco R,Hemleben V and Volkov RA. „Structural analysis of rDNA in the genus Nicotiana.” Plant Molecular Biology. 35 (1997): 655-660.

Bornet, B. and Branchard M. “Non-anchored inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers: Reproducible and specific tools for genome fingerprinting.” Plant Molecular Biology Reporter.19 (2001): 209-215.

Bradford JC and Barnes RW. “Phylogenetics and classification of Cunoniaceae (Oxalidales) using chloroplast DNA sequences and morphology.” Systematic Botany. 26 (2001.): 354-385.

Brown, R. “Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae.” Richard Taylor, London. 1810.

Caetano-Anolles G., Bassam BJ and Gresshof PM. “DNA amplification fingerprinting using very short arbitrary oligonucleotides.” Biotechnology. (1991.): 553-557.

Campbell D, Duchense P and Bernautchez L. “AFLP utility for population assignment studies: Analytical assignment and empirical comparison with microsatellites.” Molecular Ecology. 12 (2003): 1979-1991.

Chase, MW and Cox AV. “Gene sequences, collaboration and analysis of large data sets.” Australian Systematic Botany. 11 (1998): 215-229.

Chaw SM., Zharkikh A, Sung HM, Lau TC and Li WH. “Molecular phylogeny of extant gymnosperms and seed plant evolution: Analysis of nuclear 18S rRNA sequences.” Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (1997.): 56-68.

Clegg MT. “Chloroplast gene sequences and the study of plant evolution.” Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, USA. 90 (1993): 363-367.

Cocucci AA. “Evolutionary radiation in neotropical Solanaceae. [In: M. Nee, D. E. Symon, R. N. Lester and J. P. Jessop (eds.) Solanaceae IV: Advances in Biology and Utilization. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.] (1999): 9-22.

Collinson ME., Boulter MC and Holmes PL. “Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). [In: M. J. Benton [eds.]. The Fossil Record.” Chapman and Hall, London, UK] 2 (1993): 809-849.

Cronquist A. “An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants.” Columbia University Press, New York, USA. 1981.

D’Arcy WD. “The classification of the Solanaceae. [In: Hawkes JG, Lester RN and Skelding AD (eds.). The Biology and Taxonomy of the Solanaceae.” Academic Press: London] (1979): 3-47.

Demeke T, Kawchuk LM and Lynch DR. “Identification of potato cultivars and clonal variants by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.” American Potato Journal. 70 (1993): 561-570.

Doyle JJ. “DNA, phylogeny and the flowering of plant systematics.” BioScience. 43 (1993): 380-389.

Engler A and Prantl K. “Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Leipzig.” 23 vols. 1887-1915.

Fukuda T, Yokoyama J and H. Ohashi H. “Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Lycium (Solanaceae): Inferences from chloroplast DNA sequences.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 19 (2001): 246-58.

Gupta PK and Rustgi S. “Molecular markers from the transcribed / expressed region of the genome in higher plants.” Functional and Integrative Genomics. 4 (2004): 139-162.

Guzmán, FA, Ayala H, Azurdia C, Duque MC and de Vicente MC. “AFLP assessment of genetic diversity of Capsicum. Genetic resources in Guatemala home gardens as an option for conservation.” Crop Science. 45 (2005): 363-370.

Harding K. and Millam S. “Analysis of chromatin, nuclear DNA and organelle composition in somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum and Solanum sanctae-rosae.” Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 101 (1999): 939-947.

Hebert PDN, Cywinska A, Ball SL and De Waard JR. “Biological identifications through DNA barcodes.” Proceedings of Royal Society for Botany. 270 (2003): 313-321.

Heiser, CB Jr. “Nightshades: The Paradoxical Plants. Freeman, WH San Francisco, CA. 1969.

Hennig, W. 1966. Phylogenetic Systematics. Translated by D. D. Davis and R. Zangerl. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Hodkinson TR., Renvoize SA, Chonghaile GN, Stapleton C and Chase MW. “A comparison of ITS nuclear rDNA sequence data and AFLP markers for phylogenetic studies in Phyllostachys (Bambusoideae, Poaceae).” Journal of Plant Research. 113 (2000): 259–269.

Hoot SB and Douglas AW. “Phylogeny of the Proteaceae based on atpB and atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer region sequences.” Australian Systematic Botany. 11 (1998): 301-320.

Hunziker AT. “South American Solanaceae: A synoptic survey. [In: J. Hawkes G, Lester RN and Skelding AD (eds.). The Biology and Taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Academic Press, London, UK] (1979): 49-85.

Hutchinson J. “The Families of Flowering Plants. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press. 1973.

Janzen DH “Now Is The Time. Philos Trans” Royal Society London B Biological Science. 359 (2004): 731–732.

Jarvis P, Lister C, Szabo V and Dean C. “Integration of CAPs markers into the RFLP map generated using recombinant inbred lines of Arabidopsis thaliana.” Plant Molecular Biology. 24 (1994): 685-687.

Joshi SP, Ranjekar PK and Gupta.VS. “Molecular markers in plant genome analysis.” Current Science. 77 (1999): 230-240.

Julio E, Verrier JL and de Borne FD 2005. Development of SCAR markers linked to three disease resistances based on AFLP within Nicotiana tabacum L. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 112 (2005): 335-346.

Junli Z, Zhengfeng W, Mingguang L and Bosun W. “Molecular markers and their application in plant population research”. Yingyong Shengtai Xuebao. 11 (2000): 631-636.

Jussieu A L. de. “Genera Plantarum.” Paris. 1789.

Kaczorowski RL, Kaczorowski, Gardener MC and Holtsford TP. “Nectar traits in Nicotiana section Alatae (Solanaceae) in relation to floral traits, pollinators and mating system.” American Journal of Botany. 92 (2005): 1270-1283.

Kardolus JP, van Eck HJ and van den Berg RG. “The potential of AFLPs in biosystematics: A first application in Solanum taxonomy (Solanaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution. 210 (1998): 87-103.

Karihaloo JL, Brauner S and Gottlieb LD. “Random amplified polymorphic DNA variation in the eggplant, Solanum melonogena L. (Solanaceae).” Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 90 (1995): 767-770.

Karp A, Kresovich S, Bhat KV, Ayad WG and Hodgkin T. “Molecular Tools in Plant Genetic Resources Conservation: A Guide to the Technologies.” International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. 1997.

Kelly AJ and Willis JH. “Polymorphic microsatellite loci in Mimulus guttatus and related species.” Molecular Ecology. 7 (1998): 769-774.

King K., Torres RA, Zentgraf U. and Hemleben.V. “Molecular evolution of the intergenic spacer in the nuclear ribosomal RNA genes of Cucurbitaceae.” Journal of Molecular Evolution. 36: (1994) 144-152.

Kiss T, Szkukalek A and Solymosy F. “Nucleotide sequence of a 17S (18S) rRNA gene from tomato.” Nucleic Acids Research. 17 (1989): 21-27.

Kitching IJ, Forey PL, Humphries CJ and Williams DM. “Cladistics: The Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis.” 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1998.

Knapp, S. “Is morphology dead in Solanum taxonomy? [In: van der Werden G, Barendse G and van den Berg R (eds.). Solanaceae V. University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands.] 2001: 23-38.

Knapp S, Bohs L, Nee M and Spooner M. “Solanaceae- a model for linking genomics with biodiversity. Comparative and Functional Genomics. 5 (2004): 285-291.

Kochieva EZ, Ryzhova NN, Khrapalova IA and Pukhal'skii VA. “Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the genus Lycopersicon (Tourn.) Mill. as revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis.” Genetika. 38 (2002b): 1133-1142.

Kochieva E Z, Ryzhova NN, Khrapalova IA and Pukhalskyi VA. “Using RAPD for estimating genetic polymorphism in and phylogenetic relationships among species of the genus Lycopersicon (Tourn.) Mill.” Russian Journal of Genetics. 38 (2002a): 1104-1108.

Komarnyts’kyi SI and Komarnyts KI. “Genetic variability among Solanum and Lycopersicon species revealed by amplified fragment restriction polymorphism analysis of chloroplast DNA.” Tsitol Genetics. 38 (2004): 9-15.

Komarova N, Grabe T, Huigen D, Hemleben V and Volkov R. “Organization, differential expression and methylation of rDNA in artificial Solanum allopolyploids.” Plant Molecular Biology. 56 (2204): 439-463.

Koniecyzn A and Ausubel FM. “A procedure for mapping Arabidopsis mutations using co-dominant ecotype-specific PCR-based markers.” Plant Journal. 4 (1993): 403-410.

Koopman WJM, Zevenbergen MJ and Van den Berg RG. “Species relationships in Lactuca s. I. (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) inferred from AFLP fingerprints.” American Journal of Botany. 88 (2001): 1881-1887.

Kress JW, Wurdack KJ, Zimmer EA, Weigt LA and Janzen DH. “Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants.” Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA. 102 (2005): 8369-8374.

Kron K. “Phylogenetic relationships of Empetraceae, Epacridaceae and Ericaceae: Evidence from nuclear ribosomal 18S sequence data.” Annals of Botany. 77 (1996): 293-303.

Kubis SE, T. Schmidt T and Heslop-Harrison JS. “Repetitive DNA elements as a major component of plant genomes.” Annals of Botany. 82 (1998): 45-55.

Kulcheski FR., Muschner VC, Lorenz-Lemke AP, Stehman JR, Bonatto SL, Salzano FM and Freitas LB. “Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Petunia Juss. (Solanaceae).” Genetica. 126 (2006.): 3-14.

Kumar LD, Kathirvel M, Rao GV and Nagaraju J. “DNA profiling of disputed chilli samples (Capsicum annum) using ISSR-PCR and FISSR-PCR marker assays.” Forensic Science International. 116 (2001): 63-68.

Kung SD., Zhu YS and Chen K. “Nicotiana chloroplast genome III. Chloroplast DNA evolution.” Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 61 (1982): 73-79.

Levin RA and Miller JS. “Relationships within tribe Lycieae (Solanaceae): Paraphyly of Lycium and multiple origins of gender dimorphism.” American Journal of Botany. 92 (2005): 2044-2053.

Levin R., Watson AK and Bohs L. “A four-gene study of evolutionary relationships in Solanum section Acanthophora.” American Journal of Botany 92 (2005): 603-612.

Li A and Ge S. “Genetic variation and clonal diversity of Psammochloa villosa (Poaceae) detected by ISSR markers.” Annals of Botany. 87 (2001.): 585-590.

Linde, CR., Goertzen LR, Heuvel BV, Francisco-Ortega J and. Jansen RK. “The complete external transcribed spacer of 18S-28S rDNA: Amplification and phylogenetic utility at low taxonomic levels in Asteraceae and closely allied families.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 14 (2000): 285-303.

Linnaeus C., “Species Plantarum,” 2 vols. Stockholm1753.

Livingstone KD, Lacksney VK, Blauth J, Peleman J and Jahn MM. “Genetic mapping in Capsicum and genome structure in the Solanaceae. Plant & Animal Genome VII Conference.” San Diego, CA, January 17-21. 1999.

Mace ES. Gebhardt CG and Lester RN. AFLP analysis of genetic relationships in the tribe Datureae (Solanaceae). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. (1999) 634 – 641.

Marcucci-Poltri, S., M. C. Martinez and S. Hopp. Genetic relationships in the genus Solanum subsection Potato using RFLP, AFLP and SSR markers (Abstr.). [In: VI Plant and Animal Genome Meeting. San Diego, CA.]. 1998.

Marienfeld J, Unseld M and Brennicke A. “The mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis is composed of both native and immigrant information.” Trends in Plant Science. 4 (1999): 495–502.

Martins TR and Barkman TJ. “Reconstruction of Solanaceae phylogeny using the nuclear gene SAMT.” Systematic Botany. 30(2005): 435–447.

Matyasek R, Lim KY, Kovarik A, Leitch AR. “Ribosomal DNA evolution and gene conversion in Nicotiana rustica.” Heredity. 91 (2003): 268-275.

McBreen K, Lockhart PJ and McLenachan PA (2003). “The use of molecular techniques to resolve relationships among traditional weaving cultivars of Phormium.” New Zealand Journal of Botany. 41 (2003): 301-310.

Mione T, Olmstead RG, Jansen RK and Anderson GJ. “Systematic implications of chloroplast DNA variation in Jaltomata and selected physaloid genera (Solanaceae).” American Journal of Botany. 81 (1994): 912-918.

Money T, Reader S, Qu LJ, Dunford RP and Moore G. “AFLP-based mRNA fingerprinting.” Nucleic Acids Research. 24 (1996): 2616-2617.

Negi M S, Singh A and Laxmikumaran M. “Genetic variation and relationship among and within Withania species as revealed by AFLP markers.” Genome. 43(2000): 975-980.

Ohkawa H, Imaishi H, Shiota N, Yamada T, Inui H and Ohkawa Y. “Molecular mechanisms of herbicide resistance with special emphasis on cytochrome P450 mono-oxigenases.” Plant Biotechnology. 15 (1998): 173–178.

Olmstead RG and Sweere JA. “Combining data in phylogenetic systematics: An empirical approach using three molecular data sets in the Solanaceae.” Systematic Biology. 43 (1994): 467-481.

Olmstead, R. G. and P. A. Reeves. 1995. Polyphyletic origin of the Scrophulariaceae: Evidence from rbcL and ndhF sequences. Annuals of Missouri Botanical Garden. 82: 176-193.

Olmstead RG. Michaels, HJ Scott KM and Palmer JD. ‘Monophyly of the Asteridae and identification of their major lineages inferred from DNA sequences of rbcL. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden. 79 (1992): 249-265.

Olmstead RG and Palmer JD. “Implications for the phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of Solanum from cpDNA restriction site variation. Sysematic Botany.” 22 (1997): 19-29.

Olmstead RG and Palmer JD. “Chloroplast DNA systematics: A review of methods and data analysis.” American Journal of Botany. 81(1994.): 1205-1224.

Palmer JD. “Plastid chromosomes: Structure and evolution. [In: L. Bogorad and I. K. Vasil (eds.). The Molecular Biology of Plastids (Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants).” Academic Press, San Diego]. (1991)7a: 5-53.

Palmer JD and Zamir D. “Chloroplast DNA evolution and phylogenetic relationships in Lycopersicon.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 79 (1982): 5006-5010.

Palmer JD, Jansen RK, Michaels HJ, Chase MW and Manhart JW. “Chloroplast DNA variation and plant phylogeny.” Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden.75 (1988): 1180-1206.

Paran I, Aftergoot E and Shifriss C. “Variation in Capsicum annuum revealed by RAPD and AFLP markers.” Euphytica. 99 (1998): 167-173.

Pérez de la Torre MC and Escandón AS. “Construction of a molecular identification profile of new varieties of Nierembergia linariaefolia by anchored microsatellites.” Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 3 (2006): 15.

Perry KL and Palukaitis P. “Transcription of tomato ribosomal DNA and the organization of the intergenic spacer.” Molecular and General Genetics. 221 (1990): 102-112.

Prevost A and Wilkinson MJ. “A new system of comparing PCR primers applied to ISSR fingerprinting of potato cultivars.” Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 98(1999): 107-112.

Prince JP, Loaiza-Figueroa F and Tanksley SD. “Restriction fragment length polymorphism and genetic distance among Mexican accessions of Capsicum.” Genome. 35 (1992): 726-732.

Przetakiewicz J, Nadolska-Orczyk A and Orczyk W “The use of RAPD and semi-random markers to verify somatic hybrids between diploid lines of Solanum tuberosum L. Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters. 7 (2002): 671-676.

Raguso RA, Henzel C, Buchmann SL and Nabhan GP. “Trumpet flowers of the Sonoran Desert: Floral biology of Peniocereus cacti and sacred Datura.” International Journal of Plant Sciences. 164 (2003): 877-892.

Rakoczy-Trojanowska, M. and H. Bolibok. “Characteristics and a comparison of three classes of microsatellite-based markers and their application in plants.” Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters. 9 (2004): 221-38.

Ranamukhaarachchi DG, Kane ME, Guy CL and Li QB “Modified AFLP technique for rapid genetic characterization in plants.” BioTechniques. 29 (2000): 858-866.

Ren N and Timko MP. “AFLP analysis of genetic polymorphism and evolutionary relationships among cultivated and wild Nicotiana species.” Genome. 44 (2001): 559–571.

Richardson T, Cato S, Ramser J, Kahl G and Weising K. “Hybridization of microsatellites to RAPD: A new source of polymorphic markers.” Nucleic Acids Research. 23 (1995): 3798-3799.

Ridout CJ and Donini P. “Use of AFLP in cereals research.” Trends in Plant Science. 4(1999): 76-79.

Rio AH and Bamberg JB. “Ten years of research at the US Potato Genebank using molecular markers to study efficiency in the acquisition and management of potato genetic diversity.” 88th Annual Meeting of PAA. Scottsbluff, NE. Aug. (2004):8-12.

Rio AH and Bamberg JB. “RAPD markers efficiently distinguish heterogenous populations of wild potato (Solanum).” Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 47(2000): 115-121.

Ritland K and Clegg MT. “Evolutionary analysis of plant DNA sequences. American Naturalist. 130 (1987): S74-S100.

Rodriguez JM, Berke T, Engle L and Nienhuis J. “Variation among and within Capsicum species revealed by RAPD markers.” Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 99(1999): 147–156.

Ryzhova NN, Goryunova SV, Tomilov AA and Kochieva EZ. “Two types of rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) in the Capsicum genome.” Doklady Biological Sciences. 387(2002): 539-541.

Sakata Y and Lester RN. “Chloroplast DNA diversity in eggplant (Solanum melongena) and related species.” Euphytica. 97(1997): 295–301.

Santiago-Valentini, E and Olmstead RG. “Phylogenetics of the Antillean Goetzeoideae (Solanaceae) and their relationship within the Solanaceae based on chloroplast and ITS DNA sequence data.” Systematic Botany. 23 (2003): 452-460.

Saritnum, O and Sruamsiri P. “Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of galanga (Alpinia spp.) accessions.” CMU Journal. 2 (2003): 159-164.

Savolainen V, Spichiger R and Manen JF. “Polyphyletism of Celastrales deduced from a chloroplast non-coding DNA region.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 7(1997): 145-157.

Sazima M, Buzato S and Sazima I. “Dyssochroma viridiflorum (Solanaceae): A reproductively bat-dependent epiphyte from the Atlantic rainforest in Brazil.” Annals of Botany. 92 (2003): 725-730.

Scotland RW, Olmstead RG and Bennett JR. “Phylogeny Reconstruction: The Role of Morphology.” Systematic Biology. 52(2003): 539-548.

Shalk M, Nedelkina S, Schoch G, Batard Y and Werck-Reichhart D. “Role of unusual aminoacid residues in the proximal and distal heme regions of a plant P450, CYP73A1.” Biochemistry. 38 (1999): 6093-6103.

Singh AK, Singh M, Singh AK, Singh R, Kumar S and Kalloo G. “Genetic diversity within the genus Solanum (Solanaceae) as revealed by RAPD markers.” Current Science. 90 (2006): 711-716.

Sivolap YM and Kalendar RN. “Genetic polymorphism in barley detected by PCR with arbitrary primers.” Russian Journal of Genetics. 31(1995): 1155-1161.

Smelcerovic A, Verma V, Spitller M, Ahmad SM, Puri SC and Qazi GN. “Phytochemical analysis and genetic characterization of six Hypericum species from Serbia.” Phytochemistry. 67(2006): 171-177.

Spooner DM, Rios D, Rodriguez F and Ghislain M “Nuclear and chloroplast DNA reassessment of the origin of the first European introductions of cultivated potatoes from the Canary Islands.” Botanical Society of America Abstracts. (2006): 749.

Spooner, D. M., G. J. Anderson and R. K. Jansen. 1993. Chloroplast DNA evidence for the interrelationships of tomatoes, potatoes and pepinos (Solanaceae). American Journal of Botany. 80: 676–688.

Spooner DM, Tivang J, Nienhuis J, Miller JT, Douches DS and Contreras A. “Comparison of four molecular markers in measuring relationships among the wild potato relatives Solanum section Etuberosum (subgenus Potatoe).” Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 92(1996): 532-540.

Spooner DM, Van Den Berg RG and Miller JT. “Species and series boundaries of Solanum series Longipedicellata (Solanaceae) and phenetically similar species in ser. Demissa and ser. Tuberosa: Implications for a practical taxonomy of section Petota.” American Journal of Botany. 88 (2000): 113-130.

Spooner DM, Van Den Berg RG and Bamberg J. “Examination of species boundaries of Solanum series Demissa and potentially related species in series Acaulia and series Tuberosa (sect. Petota).” Systematic Botany. 20 (1995): 295–314.

Stebbins GL. “Flowering plants: Evolution Above the Species Level.” Belknap, Cambridge, MA (1974).

Stedje B and Bukenya-Ziraba R. “RAPD variation in Solanum anguivi Lam. and S. aethiopicum L. (Solanaceae) in Uganda.” Euphytica. 131(2003): 293-297.

Suganda AG., Sukrasno, N. Yasutaka, Y. Takashi and S. Nobuo. 2006. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis to distinguish Brugmansia suaveolens, B. candida and B. versicolor.” Plant Biotechnology. 23 (2000): 519-520.

Sylvain S, Patricia FR, Emilce P and Daniel P. “Molecular markers for genetic resource analysis and plant breeding. Cahiers Agricultures. 9 (2000): 311-327.

Systma KJ and Hahn WJ. “Molecular systematics: 1997-1999.” Progress in Botany. 62(2000): 307-339.

Takhtajan A. “Diversity and Classification of Flowering Plants.” Columbia University Press, New York. 1997

Thomas CM, Vos P, Zabeau M, Jones DA, Norcott KA, Chadwick BP and Jones JD. “Identification of amplified restriction fragment polymorphism (AFLP) markers tightly linked to the tomato Cf-9 gene for resistance to Cladosporium.” Plant Journal. 8 (1995): 785-794.

Tsumura Y, Ohba K and Strauss SH. “Diversity and inheritance of inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and sugi (Cryptomeria japonica).’ Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 92 (1996): 40–45.

Verma V, Ahmad SM, Ganaie MM, Basir SF, Rishi Z and Qazi G N. “Ribosomal genes in plants: Phylogenetic importance.” [In: Trivedi PC (ed). Advances in Biotechnology. Agrobios India, New Delhi.] (2005): 241-254.

Volkov RA, Komarova NY, Panchuk I I and Hemleben V. “Molecular evolution of rDNA external transcribed spacers and phylogeny of sect. Petota (genus Solanum).” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 29(2003): 187-202.

Vos PR, Hogers M, Sleeker M, Reijans T, Lee M, Homes A, Freiters J, Pot J, Peleman M, Kuiper M and Zabeau M. “AFLP: A new concept for DNA fingerprinting.” Nucleic Acids Research. 23(1995): 4407-4414.

Walsh BM and Hoot SB. “Phylogenetic relationships of Capsicum (Solanaceae) using DNA sequences from two non-coding regions: The chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer region and nuclear waxy introns.” International Journal of Plant Sciences. 162 (2001): 1409-1418.

Weising, K., R. G. Atkinson and R. C. Gardner. 1995. Genomic fingerprinting by microsatellite-primed PCR: A critical evaluation. PCR Methods and Applications. 4: 249-255.

Welsh J and McClelland M. “Genomic fingerprints produced by PCR with consensus tRNA gene primers.” Nucleic Acids Research. 19 (1991): 861–866.

Xu, Y. S., M. S. Clark and E. Pehu. 1993. Use of RAPD markers to screen somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum and S. brevidens. Plant Cell Reports. 12: 107–109.

Zhang J, Wang Z, Li M and Wang B. “Molecular markers and their application in plant population research.” Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 11 (2000): 631-636.

Zhao ZL, Zhou KY, Dong H and Xu LS. “Characters of nrDNA ITS region sequences of fruits of Alpinia galanga and their adulterants.” Planta Medica. 67 (2001): 381-383.

Zietkiewicz E, Rafalski A and Labuda D. “Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR) -anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification.” Genomics. 20 (1994): 176–183.

How to Cite
Ganaie, M., Reshi, Z., Verma, V., & Raja, V. (2018). Family Solanaceae: Taxonomy and modern trends. Annals of Plant Sciences, 7(9), 2403-2414.
Review Article