Cover Image

The morphological traits variation and inter relationships of understorey species of Sal (Shorea robusta) forest of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh, India.

Satish Kumar Rai, Ravindra P. Shukla, Sanjay Kumar Pandey

Abstract


Measurements of plant traits are required for evaluating community structure and its ecological responses to varying environmental conditions. The grouping on the basis of functional traits of plants has strong predictive power of important ecosystem responses to environmental perturbation. The morphological traits and their interrelationship among associated species have been analyzed to understand the quantitative variation within regional sal dominated forests. Data for five morphometric traits viz., plant height, leaf length, leaf width, flower size and fruit size, were observed for 193 woody (tree, shrub and liana) species belonging to 56 families within understorey of sal forest. Forty-one families were polytypic in nature. One-way ANOVA was used to detect how variation among all the traits was distributed among habit groups. A significant positive relationship was noticed between plant height and each of the leaf length, leaf width and fruit size. Of the different morphometric traits observed only plant height and fruit size showed wider variation among three life–form categories. Overall, our results suggest that measurement of plant morphometric characters are the major drivers of understory sal associates of the region. Hence, the morphological traits of sal associates should be carefully considered in framing the management and conservation strategy of regional sal forests.

Keywords


Sal associates, Morphometric characters, Plant traits, Life form, Habit groups

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ackerly, D. D. 2004. Adaptation, niche conservatism, and convergence: comparative studies of leaf evolution in the California chaparral. American Nature 163: 654–671.

Auger, S. & B. Shipley. 2013. Inter-specific and intra-specific trait variation along short environmental gradients in an old-growth temperate forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 24: 419-428.

Bawa, K.S., S.H. Bullock, D.R., R.E. Coville & M.H. Grayum. 1985. Reproductive biology of tropical lowland rain forest trees. II. Pollination systems. - Americal Journal of Botany 72: 346-356.

Campbell, D.R., N.M. Waser & E.J. Meléndez-Ackerman. 1997. Analyzing pollinator mediated selection in a plant hybrid zone: hummingbird visitation patterns on three spatial scales. American Nature 149: 295–315.

Carpenter, F. L. 1976. Plant-pollinator interactions in Hawaii: Pollination energetics of Metrosideros collina (Myrtaceae). Ecology 57: 1125-1144.

Carpenter, T., Franke, M., & Levi, L. (2003). Thinking mathematically: Integrating arithmetic and algebra in elementary school. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

Cornelissen, J.H.C. 1999. A triangular relationship between leaf size and seed size among woody species: allometry, ontogeny, ecology, and taxonomy. Oecologia 118: 248–255.

Cornelissen, J.H.C., P. Castro-Díez & R. Hunt. 1996. Seedling growth, allocation and leaf attributes in a wide range of woody plant species and types. Journal of Ecology 84: 755–765.

Cornelissen., J.H.C. S. Lavorel, E. Garnier, S. Diaz, N. Buchmann, D. E. Gurvich, P.B. Reiach, H. ter Steege, H.D. Morgan, M.G.A. van der Heijden, J. G. Pausas & H. Poorter 2003. A handbook of protocols for standardized and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. American Journal of Botany 51: 335-380.

Corner, E.J.H. 1949. Durian theory or the origin of the modern tree. Annals of Botany 13: 367–414.

Dı´az, S. & Cabido, M. 2001. Plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem processes. Trends of Ecology and Evolution 16: 646–655.

Dolédec, S. & D. Chessel. 1994. Co-inertia analysis: an alternative method for studying species-environment relationships. Freshwater Biology 31: 277‒294.

Fonseca, C.R., J.M. Overton, B. Collins & M. Westoby. 2000. Shifts in trait combinations along rainfall and phosphorus gradients. Journal of Ecology 88: 964–977.

Givnish, T.J. 1978. Ecological aspects of plant morphology: leaf form in relation to environment. Theoretical Plant Morphology (ed. R. Sattler) 83–142. Leiden University Press, Leiden.

Givnish, T. J. 1987. Comparative studies of leaf form: assessing the relative roles of selective pressures and phylogenetic constraints. New Phytologist 106: 131–160.

Gregory-Wodzicki, K.M. 2000. Relationships between leaf morphology and climate, Bolivia: implications for estimating paleoclimate from fossil floras. Paleobiology 26: 668-688.

Hammer, Øyvind (1999-2012). PAST, PAleontological Statistics, Version 2.17, University of Oslo ohammer@nhm.uio.no

Hendry, G.A.F. & J.P. Grime. 1993. Methods in comparative plant ecology-a manual of laboratory methods. London: Chapman and Hall.

Hulshof, C.M. & N.G. Swenson. 2010. Variation in leaf functional trait values within and across individuals and species: an example from a Costa Rican dry forest. Functional Ecology 24: 217-223.

Kang, M., S.X. Chang, E.R. Yan & X.H. Wang. 2014. Trait variability differs between leaf and wood tissues across ecological scales in subtropical forests. Journal of Vegetation Science 25: 703-714.

Kraft, N.J., R. Valencia & D.D. Ackerly 2008. Functional traits and niche-based tree community assembly in an Amazonian forest. Science 322: 580-582.

Lavorel, S., S. McIntyre, J. Landsberg & T.D.A. Forbes. 1997. Plant functional classifications: from general groups to specific groups based on response to disturbance. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12: 474–478.

Leishman, M.R., I.J. Wright, A.T. Moles & M. Westoby. 2000. The evolutionary ecology of seed size. In: Fenner M, editor. Seeds: the ecology of regeneration in plant communities. Wallingford, UK. CAB International 31–57.

Lloyd, D. G. 1985. Progress in understanding the natural history of New Zealand plants. New Zealand. Journal of Botany 23: 707-722.

Lord, J., M. Westoby & M. Leishman. 1995. Seed size and phylogeny in six temperate floras: constraints, niche conservatism, and adaptation. American Nature 146: 349–364.

Messier, J., B.J. McGill, B.J. Enquist & M.J. Lechowicz. 2016. Trait variation and integration across scales: is the leaf economic spectrum present at local scales? Ecography

Messier, J., B.J. McGill, B.J. Enquist & M.J. Lechowicz. 2010. How do traits vary across ecological scales? A case for trait-based ecology. Ecological Letter 13: 838-848.

Moles, A.T., D.S. Falster, M.R. Leishman & M. Westoby. 2004. Small-seeded species produce more seeds per square metre of canopy per year, but not per individual per lifetime. Journal of Ecology 92: 384–396.

Murali K.S. 1997. Patterns of seed size, germination and seed viability of tropical tree species in southern India. Biotropica 29: 271–279.

Osunkoya, O. O. 1996. Light requirements for regeneration in tropical forest plants: taxon-level and ecological attribute effects. Australian Journal of Ecology 21: 429–441.

Pandey, S.K. & R.P. Shukla. 2003. Plant diversity in managed sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn) forests of Gorakhpur, India: species composition, regeneration and conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 2295-2319.

Roche, P., N. Díaz-Burlinson & S. Gachet. 2004. Congruency analysis of species ranking based on leaf traits: which traits are the more reliable? Plant Ecology 174: 37-48.

Sagar, R. & J.S. Singh. 2003. Predominant phenotypic traits of disturbed tropical dry deciduous forest vegetation in northern India. Community Ecology 4 : 63-71.

Srivastava, T.N. 1976. Flora Gorakhpurensis. Today & Tomorrow’s Printers & Publishers, New Delhi, India.

Srivastava, S., A. Dvivedi & R.P. Shukla. 2015. Commonness and rarity pattern of plant species within Terai grassland of north- eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Tropical Grasslands 3: 161–186.

Shukla, R.P. & P.S Ramakrishnan. 1986. Architecture and growth strategies of tropical trees in relation to successional status, Journal of Ecology. 74: 33–46.

Shukla, R.P. 2009. Pattern of plant species diversity across Terai landscape in north-eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Tropical Ecology 50: 111-123.

Vivek, P. & N. Parthasarathy. 2015. Liana community and functional trait analysis in tropical dry evergreen forest of India. Journal of Plant Ecology 8: 501–512.

Valencia, E., E. Valencia, L. José Quero & T. Fernando. 2016. Maestre Journal of Plant Ecology 9: 773–783.

Walker, B., A. Kinzig & J. Langridge. 1999. Plant attribute diversity, resilience, and ecosystem function: the nature and significance of dominant and minor species. Ecosystems 2: 95–113.

Westoby, M. & I.J. Wright. 2003. The leaf size–twig size spectrum and its relationship to other important spectra of variation among species. Oecologia 135: 621–628.

Westoby, M. 1998. A leaf-height-seed (LHS) plant ecology strategy scheme. Plant Soil 199:213–227.

Westoby, M., D.S. Falster, A.T. Moles, P.A. Vesk & I. J. Wright. 2002. Plant ecological strategies: some leading dimensions of variation between species. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33:125–159.

Whitney, K.D. & J.A. Rudgers. 2009. Constraints on plant signals and rewards to multiple mutualists? Plant Signal Behaviour 4:1–4.

Wright, I.J. 2007. Relationships among key dimensions of plant trait variation in seven Neotropical forests. Annals of Botany 99: 1003–1015.

Wright, I.J., P.B. Reich, J.H.C. Cornelissen, D.S. Falster, E. Garnier, K. Hikosaka, B.B. Lamont, W. Lee, J. Oleksyn, N. Osada, H. Poorter, R. Villar, D.I. Warton & M. Westoby. 2005. Assessing the generality of global leaf trait relationships. New Phytologist 166: 485–496.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21746/aps.2018.7.4.18

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Annals of Plant Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.