Ecological exploration of Kuwana forest: A tropical moist deciduous forest of eastern Terai, India
The present study was conducted in the Kuwana forest of Gonda forest division in Uttar Pradesh to explore its ecological inventories. Random stratified sampling was adopted to collect the basic information like frequency, density and abundance for the calculation of importance value index (IVI). On the basis of principal component analysis (PCA) plot, three forest communities were identified and named as, Syzygium Lowland Forest (SLF), Shorea Miscellaneous Forest (SMF) and Mallotus Miscellaneous Forest (MMF). MMF community allowed the maximum 39 while SLF minimum 18 tree species growing in it. Conversely, SMF community showed higher heterogeneous tree diversity validated by lower Dominance index (0.088) and higher Simpson index (0.912). The values of these two indices were found very low in comparison with their range for tropical forests of India. On the otherhand the diversity indices (Shannon & Fisher alpha) was calculated as maximum (2.797 & 11.960 respectively) for MMF community, which indicates the existence of better tree diversity in this forest community. The higher values of Evenness & Equitability indices (0.646 & 0.859 respectively) for SMF community showed the more evenly distribution of tree species in this community.
Bajpai, O., A. Kumar, A. K. Mishra, N. Sahu, S. K. Behera and L. B. Chaudhary. “Phenological study of two dominant tree species in tropical moist deciduous forest from the Northern India.” International Journal of Botany 8.2 (2012b): 66-72. Online.
Bajpai, O., A. Kumar, A. K. Mishra, N. Sahu, J. Pandey, S. K. Behera and L. B. Chaudhary. “Recongregation of tree species of Katerniaghat wildlife sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India.” Journal of Biodiversity & Environmental Sciences 2 (2012a): 24-40. Online.
Bajpai, O., A. Kumar, A. K. Srivastava, A. K. Kushwaha, J. Pandey and L. B. Chaudhary. “Tree species of the Himalayan Terai region of Uttar Pradesh, India: A checklist.” Check List 11.4 (2015b): 1718. Online.
Bajpai, O., A. K. Kushwaha, A. K. Srivastava, J. Pandey and L. B. Chaudhary. “Phytosociological status of a monotypic genus Indopiptadenia: A near threatened tree from the Terai-Bhabar region of central Himalaya.” Research Journal of Forestry 9 (2015a): 35-47. Online.
Behera, S. K., A. K. Mishra, N. Sahu, A. Kumar, N. Singh, A. Kumar, O. Bajpai, L. B. Chaudhary, P. B. Khare and R. Tuli. “The study of microclimate in response to different plant community association in tropical moist deciduous forest from northern India.” Biodiversity and Conservation 21.5 (2012): 1159-1176. Online.
Campbell, D. G., D. C. Daly, G. T. Prance and U. N. Maciel. “Quantitative ecological inventory of Terra firma and the Varzea tropical forest on the Rio Xingu, Brazilian Amazon.” Brittanica 38 (1986): 369-393. Print.
Campbell, D. G., J. L. Stone and A. Jr. Rosas. “A comparison of the phytosociology and dynamics of three floodplain (Várzea) forests of known ages, Rio Juruá, western Brazilian Amazon.” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 108.3 (1992): 213-237. Online.
Champion, H. G. and S. K. Seth. “A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India.” Govt. of India Press, New Delhi, India. (1968). Print.
Chaturvedi, A. N. and C. M. Misra. “Ecological Survey of Grasslands at Dudhwa National Park.” Indian Forester 111.8 (1985): 579-582. Print.
Chauhan, D. S., C. S. Dhanai, B. Singh, S. Chauhan, N. P. Todaria and M. A. Khalid. “Regeneration and tree diversity in natural and planted forests in a Terai- Bhabhar forest in Katarniaghat wildlife sanctuary, India.” Tropical Ecology 49 (2008): 53-67. Online.
Cottam, G. and J. T. Curtis. “The use of distance measures in phytosociological sampling.” Ecology 37 (1956): 451-460. Print.
Curtis, J. T. and R. P. McIntosh. “The interrelations of certain analytic and synthetic phytosociological characters.” Ecology 31 (1950): 434-455. Print.
De, R. “Management plan of Dudwa Tiger Reserve (2000–2001 to 2009–2010).” Uttar Pradesh: Wildlife Preservation Organization, Forest Department, Uttar Pradesh, India. (2001). Print.
Deori, B. B., P. Deb and H. Singha. “Tree Diversity and Population Structure of a Protected Lowland Tropical Forest in Barail Hill Range, Northeast India.” International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 42.2 (2016): 303-319. Online.
Erenso, F., M. Maryo and W. Abebe. “Floristic composition, diversity and vegetation structure of woody plant communities in Boda dry evergreen Montane Forest, West Showa, Ethiopia.” International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 6 (2014): 382-391. Online.
Greig-Smith, P. “Quantitative plant ecology, 3rd edition.” Blackwell, London. (1983). Print.
Gunaga, S., N. Rajeshwari and R. Vasudeva. “Tree diversity and disturbance of Kaan forests: Relics of a community protected climax vegetation in the central Western Ghats.” Tropical Ecology 54 (2013): 117-131. Online.
Jongman, R. H., C. J. F. ter Braak and O. F. R. van Tongeren. “Data Analysis in Community and Landscape Ecology.” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. (1995). Online.
Kibria, M. G. and N. Saha. “Analysis of existing agroforestry practices in Madhupur Sal forest: An assessment based on ecological and economic perspectives.” Journal of Forestry Research 22 (2011): 533-542. Online.
Krebs, C. J. “Ecological Methodology. 2nd edition.” Harper and Row, New York, USA. (1989). Print.
Kumar, A., B. G. Marcot and A. Saxena. “Tree species diversity and distribution patterns in tropical forests of Garo Hills.” Current Science 91 (2006): 1370-1381. Online.
Lynch, A. J. J. and J. Balmer. “The ecology, phytosociology and stand structure of an ancient endemic plant Lomatia tasmanica (Proteaceae) approaching extinction.” Australian Journal of Botany 52.5 (2004): 619-627. Online.
Marimon, B. S., J. M. Felfili and E. S. Lima. “Floristics and phytosociology of the Gallery forest of the Bacaba Stream, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil.” Edinburgh Journal of Botany 59.2 (2002): 303-318. Online.
Mooney, E. P. and M. O'Connell. “The Phytosociology and Ecology of the Aquatic and Wetland Plant Communities of the Lower Corrib Basin, County Galway.” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section B: Biological, Geological, and Chemical Science. 90.B (1990): 57-97. Online.
Nowak, A., M. Nobis, S. Nowak, M. Gębala and A. Nobis. “Phytosociology and ecology of deciduous forests in Tajikistan (Middle Asia).” Phytocoenologia 47 (2017): 67-94. Online.
Panchal, N. S. and A. N. Pandey. “Analysis of vegetation of Rampara forest in Saurashtra region of Gujarat state of India.” Tropical Ecology 45 (2004): 223-231. Online.
Pandey, S. K. and R. P. Shukla. “Plant diversity and community patterns along the disturbance gradient in plantation of sal (Shorea robsuta Gaertn).” Current Science 77 (1999): 814-818. Online.
Parthasarathy, N. “Tree diversity and distribution in undisturbed and human-impacted sites of tropical wet evergreen forest in Southern Western Ghats, India.” Biodiversity and Conservation 8 (1999): 1365-1381. Online.
Parthasarathy, N., V. Kinhal and L. P. Kumar. “Plant species diversity and human impacts in the tropical wet evergreen forests of southern western ghats.” Proceedings of the Indo-French Workshop on Tropical Forest Ecosystems: Natural Functioning and Anthropogenic Impact, November 1992, Pondicherry, India. (1992). Print.
Perkins, L., G. J. Bredenkamp and J. E. Grange. “The phytosociology of the incised river valleys and dry upland savanna of southern KwaZulu-Natal.” South African Journal of Botany 65.5-6 (1999): 321-330. Online.
Ravanbakhsh, H., B. Hamzeh'ee, V. Etemad, M. R. Marvie Mohadjer and M. Assadi. “Phytosociology of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. forests in Alborz mountain range in the north of Iran.” Plant Biosystems 150.5 (2016): 987-1000. Online.
Sagar, R., A. S. Raghubanshi and J. S. Singh. “Tree species composition, dispersion and diversity along a disturbance gradient in a dry tropical forest region of India.” Forest Ecology and Management 186 (2003): 61-71. Online.
Sambare, O., F. Bognounou, R. Wittig and A. Thiombiano. “Woody species composition, diversity and structure of riparian forests of four watercourses types in Burkina Faso.” Journal of Forestry Research 22 (2011): 145-158. Online.
Sarkar, A. K., M. Dey and M. Mazumder. “A comparative study of tree species composition of Panjhora forest beat and Sipchu forest beat of Chalsa forest range, West Bengal, India.” Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology 5.2 (2017): 045-052. Online.
Sarkar, M. and A. Devi. “Assessment of diversity, population structure and regeneration status of tree species in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, Northeast India.” Tropical Plant Research 1.2 (2014): 26-36. Online.
Shukla, R. P. “Patterns of plant species diversity across Terai landscape in north-eastern Uttar Pradesh, India.” Tropical Ecology 50 (2009): 111-123. Online.
Simpson, E. H. “Measurement of diversity.” Nature 163 (1949): 688-688. Online.
Singh, A., V. S. Reddy and J. S. Singh. “Analysis of woody vegetation of Corbett National Park, India.” Vegetatio. 120.1 (1995): 69-79. Online.
Singh, J. S., S. P. Singh, A. K. Saxena and Y. S. Ravat. “The Forest Vegetation of Silent Valley.” In: Tropical Rain-Forest: The Leeds Symposium, Chadwick AC, Sutton SL (Eds.). Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, USA. (1984). Print.
Singh, L. and J. S. Singh. “Species structure, dry matter dynamics and carbon flux of a dry tropical forest in India.” Annals of Botany 68 (1991): 263-273. Online.
Suman, S. and N. Upadhyay. “Ethnomedicinal value of plants of Kuwana forest region, Gonda District, U.P.” Journal of Applied Bioscience 35.1 (2009): 86-88. Online.
Supriya, D. L. and P. S. Yadava. “Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of tropical semievergreen forest of Manipur, north east India.” Tropical Ecology 47.1 (2006): 89-98. Online.
Ter Braak, C. J. F. and I. C. Prentice. “A theory of gradient analysis.” Advances in Ecological Research. 18 (1988): 271-313. Online.
Timilsina, N., M. S. Ross and J. T. Heinen. “A community analysis of sal (Shorea robusta) forests in the western Terai of Nepal.” Forest Ecology and Management 241 (2007): 223-234. Online.
Top, N., N. Mizoue, S. Ito, S. Kai, T. Nakao and S. Ty. “Effects of population density on forest structure and species richness and diversity of trees in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia.” Biodiversity and Conservation 18 (2009): 717-738. Online.
Tripathi, K. P. and B. Singh. “Species diversity and vegetation structure across various strata in natural and plantation forests in Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, North India.” Tropical Ecology 50 (2009): 191-200. Online.
Tripathi, K. P., S. Tripathi, T. Selven, K. Kumar, K. K. Singh, S. Mehrotra S and P. Pushpangadan. “Community structure and species diversity of saddle peak forests in Andaman Island.” Tropical Ecology 4 (2004) 5: 1-10. Online.
Visalakshi, N. “Vegetation analysis of two tropical dry evergreen forests in southern India.” Tropical Ecology 36 (1995): 117-127. Online.
Copyright (c) 2017 Annals of Plant Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The Editor In-Chief,
Annals of Plant Sciences [APS]
ISSN: 2287-688X http://www.annalsofplantsciences.com
Dear Sir, Sub: Submission of an original paper with copyright agreement and authorship responsibility (submit by e-mail only)
I certify that I have participated sufficiently in the conception and design of this work and the analysis of the data (wherever applicable), as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it. I believe the manuscript represents valid work. I have reviewed the final version of the manuscript and approve it for publication. Neither the manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my authorship been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in an attachment. Furthermore, I attest that I shall produce the data upon which the manuscript is based for examination by the editors or their assignees, if requested.
Kindly find it suitable to publish in your esteemed journal.
Author name/s and affiliation Signatures