Harmful effects of Parthenium hysterophorus and management through different approaches- A review

Jayaramiah R., Ramesh Balenahalii N., Krishnaprasad B.T., Sunil Kumar R., Pramodh G., Ramkumar C., Sheshadri T.


Parthenium hysterophorus is commonly known as congress grass or carrot weed in India. It belongs to Asteraceae family and native to subtropics of North and South America. It is an invasive plant species that disturbs cultivated areas, roadside vegetation, gardens etc. P. hysterophorus is considered as one of the worst weeds responsible for causing health problems in animals and humans viz., dermatitis, asthma and bronchitis besides loss to agriculture and ecosystem. Nowadays, it has become one of the major weeds in almost all types of agricultural lands and other areas. Many control methods ranging from preventive, physical methods by manual uprooting, burning and allelopathic management through competitive plants like Cassia tora, Cassia uniflora Cassia sericea, have been recommended for management of P. hysterophorus. Likewise, insect Zygogramma bicolorata has proven successful in managing P. hysterophorus. Further, microorganisms like Alternaria alternata, Scerotiia sclerotiorum, Fusarium Pallidoroseum, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomanas campestris are reported to infest P. hysterophorus. Use of chemical herbicides mainly glyphosate @ 2.5 kg a.i.ha-1,atrazine @ 2.6 kg a.i.ha-1,2,4-D amine @ 3 l/ ha-1, Paraquat 0.5 l/ ha-1 were proved effective in managing P. hysterophorus. No single option is suitable to control this invasive weed. Successful control of this weed can only be achieved by an integrated weed management approaches.


Parthenium hysterophorus, Biological control, Integrated approach, Preventive measures, Allelopathic control

Full Text:



Akhtar N, Satyam A, Anand V, Verma KK, Khatri R, Sharma A. Dysregulation of TH type cytokines in the patients of Parthenium hysterophorus induced contact dermatitis Clin Chim Acta, 2010, 411, 2024-2028.

Akter A, Zuberi MI. Invasive alien species in Northern Bangladesh: identification, inventory and impacts. Int J Biodivers Conserv, 2009, 15, 129-134.

Aneja KR. Biotechnology for the production and enhancement of mycoherbicide potential. In: From Ethnomycology to Fungal Biotechnology Plenum, London, UK, 1999, 91-114.

Aneja KR. Biotechnology: an alternative novel strategy in agriculture to control weeds resistant to conventional herbicides. In: Antimicrobial Resistance from Emerging Threats to Reality, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 2009, 160-173.

Aneja KR. Deadly weed Parthenium hysterophorus and its control-a review. In: Aery NC, Chaudary BL (eds) Botanical researches in India. Himanshu Publications, Udaipur, India, 1991, 258-269.

ANONYMOUS) Registered herbicides used for Parthenium hysterophorus control. 2011, Available from URL: http://www.biosecurity.qld.gov.au/

Bhan VM, Kauraw LP, Chile A. Biological suppression of weeds with pathogens, In: Biological suppression of plant diseases, phytoparasitic nematodes and weeds, Project Directorate of Biological Control, Bangalore, India, 1998, 192- 210.

Char MB Nagendran CR Ganesh D. Mealy bug on the roots of parthenium weed. Curr Sci, 1975, 44, 207.

Chembolli L, Srinivas CR. Parthenium hysterophorus: A wide angle view. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol, 2007, 73, 296-306.

Chippendale JF, Panetta FD. The cost of Parthenium hysterophorus weeds to the Queensland cattle industry. Plant Protection Quarterly, 1994, 9, 73-76.

CRC. Weed Management Guide: Parthenium hysterophorus Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus). The state of Queensland, Department of Natural Resource and Mines, Queensland Government, Queensland, Australia, 2003.

Datta S Saxena DB. Pesticidal properties of parthenin (from Parthenium hysterophorus) and related compounds. Pest Manag Sci, 2001, 57, 95-101.

Deshpande KS Deshpande UK Rathore OS. Biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus L. Indian Botanical Report, 1982, 1, 40-42.

Devaraja, Narayanaswamy K, Savithri HS, Muniyappa V. Purification of Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus and production of polyclonal antibodies. Curr Sci, 2005, 89, 181-183.

Dhawan SR Gupta SK. Spermoplane mycoflora of Parthenium hysterophorus L. and its weed control potential. Adv Plant Sci, 1997, 10, 95-101.

Dhileepan K. Effectiveness of introduced biocontrol insects on the weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in Australia. Bull Entomol Res, 2001, 91, 167-176.

Evans HC Ellison CA. Classical biological control of weeds with microorganisms: past, present, prospects. Asp Appl Biol, 1990, 24, 39-49.

Fessehaie R, Chichayibelu M, Giorgis MH. Spread and ecological consequences of Parthenium hysterophorus in Ethiopia. Appl Environ Microbiol, 2005, 6, 11-21.

Gaikwad CB, Kasture MC, Lambade BM. Evaluation of herbicides for control of Parthenium hysterophorus in waste land. Indian J Weed Sci, 2008, 40, 79-81.

Griffiths MW Mcfadyen RE. Biology and host specificity of Platphalonidia mystica (Lep. Cochylidae) introduced into Queensland to biologically control Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae). Entomophaga, 1993, 38, 131-137.

Gunaseelan NV Impact of anaerobic digestion on inhibition potential of Parthenium hysterophorus solids. Biomass Bioenergy, 1998, 14, 179-184.

Jai K, Jaggi D, Paul MS. Alelopathicc effect of selected weeds on biochemical activity of Parthenium hysterophorus. Curr Res J Biol Sci, 2010, 2, 238-240.

Javaid A, Adrees H. Parthenium hysterophorus management by cultural filtrates of phytopathogenic fungi. Nat Prod Res, 2009, 23, 1541-1551.

Javaid A, Anjum T, Bajwa R. Biological Control of Parthenium hysterophorus II: Allelopathic effect of Desmostachya bipinnata on distribution and early seedling growth of Parthenium hysterophorus L. Int J Biol Biotechnol, 2005, 2, 459-463.

Javaid A, Shafique S, Shafique S. Management of Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) by Withania somnifera (Solanaceae). Nat Prod Res, 2011, 25, 407-16.

Javaid A. Efficacy of some chemical herbicides against Parthenium hysterophorus L. Pakistan J Weed Sci Res, 2007, 13, 93-98.

Jayanth KP. Introduction and establishment of Zygogramma bicolorata on Parthenium hysterophorus at Bangalore, India. Curr Sci, 1987, 56, 310-311.

Jeyalakshmi C, Doraisamy S, Paridasan VV. Lasidiplodia theobromae: a potential pathogen of Parthenium hysterophorus Linnaeus. In: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Parthenium hysterophorus Management held at Bangalore (Karnataka), 2005, 271-272.

Joshi S, Mahadevappa M. Cassia sericea S. to fight Parthenium hysterophorus L. Curr Sci, 1986, 55, 261-262.

Kandasamy OS, Sankaran S. Biological suppression of Parthenium hysterophorus weed using competitive crops and plants. In: Proceeding of the 1st International Conference on Parthenium hysterophorus Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, 1997, 33-36

Kathiresan RM, Gnanavel I, Anbhazhagan R, Padmapriya SP, Vijayalakshmi NK, Arulchezhian MP. Ecology and control of Parthenium hysterophorus invasion in command area. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Parthenium hysterophorus Management, December 5-7, 2005, Bangalore, India, 77-80.

Kaur M, Aggarwal NK, Kumar V, Dhiman R. Effects and Management of Parthenium hysterophorus: A Weed of Global Significance. Int Sch Res Notices, 2014, 2014, 1-12.

Kauraw LP, Chile A, Bhan VM. Evaluation of Fusarium pallidoroseum (Cooke) Sacc. for the biocontrol of Parthenium hysterophorus L. In: Proceedings of First International Conference on Parthenium hysterophorus Management, 6-8 October (1997) Dharwad, India, 70-74.

Khan H, Khan BM, Hassan G Khan MA. Chemical control of Parthenium hysterophorus L. at different growth stages in non-cropped area. Pakistan J Bot, 2012, 44, 1721-1726.

Khan N, O’Donnell C, Shabbir A, Adkins SW. Competitive displacement of Parthenium hysterophorus weed with beneficial native and introduced pastures plants in central Queensland, Australia. In: Seventeenth Australian weeds conference. Christchurch Convention Centre, Christchurch, New Zealand. 26-30 September 2010, 131-134.

Khosla SN, Sobti SN Effective control of Parthenium hysterophorus L. Pesticides, 1981, 15, 18-19.

Kishun R, Chad R. New collateral hosts for Pseudomonas solanacearum. Indian J Mycol Plant Patho, 1988, 17, 237.

Knox J. An investigation on suppressing capabilities of some allelopathic plants against Parthenium hysterophorus L. [Ph.D. thesis], Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra, India, 2008.

Kumar CV, Rao AS. Two new leaf spot diseases. Indian Phytopath, 1977, 30, 118-120.

Kumar S, Jayaraj S Muthukrishanan TS. Natural enemies of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. J Entomol Res, 1979, 3, 32-35.

Lonkar A, Mitchell JC, Calnan CD. Contact dermatitis from Parthenium hysterophorus. Trans St Johns Hosp Dermatol Soc, 1974, 60, 43-53.

Maheshwari JK. Parthenium hysterophorus. Curr Sci, 1966, 35, 181-183.

Masum SM, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Ali MH. Threats of Parthenium hysterophorus on agro eco systems and its management: a review. Int J Agri Crop Sci, 2013, 6, 684-697.

Mcconnachie AJ, Strathie LW, Mersie W, Gebrehiwot L, Zewdie K, Abdurehim A, Abrha B, Araya T, Asaregew F, Assefa F, Gebre-Tsadik R, Nigatu L, Tadesse B Tana T Current and potential geographical distribution of the invasive plant Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in eastern and southern Africa. Weed Res, 2011, 51, 71-84.

Mcfadyen RE Parthenium hysterophorus weed and human health in Queensland. Aust Fam Physician, 1995, 24, 1455-9.

Mishra JS, Bhan VM. Efficacy of sulfonyl urea herbicides against Parthenium hysterophorus. Indian J Weed Sci, 1994, 26, 104-108.

Mitchell JC, Calnan CD. Scourge of India: Parthenium hysterophorus dermatitis. Int J Dermatol, 1978, 17, 303-4.

Narasimhan TR, Ananth M, Swamy MN, Babu MR, Mangala A Rao PV. Toxicity of Parthenium hysterophorus L. to cattle and buffaloes. Experientia, 1977, 33, 1358-1359.

Pandey AK, Luka BM, Hasija SK, Rajak RC. Pathogenicity of some fungi to Parthenium hysterophorus an obnoxious weed in Madhya Pradesh. J Biol Contr, 1991, 5, 113-115.

Pandey AK, Mishra J, Hasija SK. Effect of inoculum on mycoherbicidal potential of Sclerotium rolfsii against Parthenium hysterophorus. J Mycol Plant Pathol, 1998, 28, 284-287.

Pandey AK, Mishra J, Rajak RC Hasija SK. Potential of indigenous strains of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. for the management of Parthenium hysterophorus L: A serious threat to biodiversity in India. In: Herbal Medicines, Biodiversity and Conservation Strategies (Eds. Rajak R.C. and Rai M.K.) International Book Distributors, Dehradun, 1996, 104-138.

Puttaswamy, Deviah M, Rangaswamy MR. A new host record of the vegetable mite, Tetrancychus cucurbitae Rahaman and Sapra. Curr Sci, 1976, 46, 15-16.

Raj SK, Khan MS, Snehi SK, Kumar S, Mall S, Rao GP. First report of phytoplasma 'Candidatus phytoplasma asteris' (16SrI) from Parthenium hysterophorus L. showing symptoms of virescence and witches'-broom in India. Australas. Plant Dis Notes, 2002, 3, 44-45.

Rajak RC, Farakya S, Hasija SK, Pandey AK. Fungi associated with congress weed. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 1990, 60, 165-168.

Rajulu SG, Gowri N, Perumal NS. Biological control of the pernicious weed Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. Curr Sci, 1976, 45, 624-625.

Ramamoorthy M, Uthayakuar B, Rajapandian JS, Muthusankara narayanan A Integrated weed management for Parthenium hysterophorus. The Hindu, Online Edition of India’s National News Paper, Dec.4, 2004, Available from URL. http://www.hindu.com/seta/2003/12/04/stories/2003120400101700.htm.

Rao AP, Rao AS. New fungal diseases of some weeds. Indian Botanical Reporter, 1987, 6, 38.

Ray P, Gour HN. Integrated management of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae): a weed of worldwide significance. Indian J Mycol Plant Pathol, 2012, 5, 605-632.

Reddy KN, Bryson CT, Burke IC. Ragweed Parthenium hysterophorus control with preemergence and Posemergence Herbicides. Weed Technol, 2007, 21, 982-986.

Sarkate MB, Pawar VM. Establishment of Mexican beetle (Zygogramma bicolorata) Pallister in biological suppression of Parthenium hysterophorus in Maharashtra, In : Proceedings of Second International Conference on Parthenium hysterophorus Management held at Bangalore (Karnataka), 5-7 December 2005, (Eds. PRASAD et al.), 2005, 120-122.

Seema Patel. Harmful and beneficial aspects of Parthenium hysterophorus: an update. 3Biotech, 2011, 1, 1-9.

Shabbir A, Bajwa R. Parthenium hysterophorus- Spread and status on its management in Pakistan, In: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Parthenium hysterophorus Management held at Bangalore (Karnataka) 5-7 December 2005, (Eds. PRASAD et al.) 28-35.

Sharma VK, verma P, Maharaja K. Parthenium hysterophorus dermatitis. Photochem Photobiol Sci, 2013, 12, 85-94.

Singh BR, Singh AK. Occurrence of two MLO diseases on congress grass and their management in Uttar Pradesh. Int J Trop Plant Dis, 1998, 16, 55-59.

Singh NP. Potential biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus L. Curr Sci, 1983, 52, 644.

Singh PK, Anil VP, Singh D, Gogoi AK. On farm evaluation of herbicides for the control of Parthenium hysterophorus and Ipomea species under non-crop situation. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Alien Invasive Weeds in India, Jorhat, India, 2003, 88-90.

Singh S, Yadav A, Balyan RS, Malik RK, Singh M. Control of ragweed Parthenium hysterophorus and associated weeds. Weed Technol, 2004, 18, 658-664.

Srikanth J, Reddy GV, Mallikarjunappa, Kumar P. Records of Orthezia insignis (Homoptera: Ortheziidae) on Parthenium hysterophorus Linnaeus. Entomon, 1988, 13, 185- 186.

Sushilkumar, Saraswat VN. Integrated management: The only solution to suppress Parthenium hysterophorus In: Alien Weeds in Moist Tropical Zones: Banes and Benefits” (Eds. Sankaran K.V., Murphy S.T. and Evans H.C.) Workshop Proceedings, 2-4 November, 1999, Kerala, India, Kerala Forest Research Institute, India and CABI Bioscience, UK Centre (Ascot), UK, 2001, 150-168.

Sushilkumar. Biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus in India: status and prospects. Indian J Weed Sci, 2009, 41, 1-18.

Sushilkumar. Survey of insect and non-insect fauna of weeds in Jabalpur and adjoining area. In: Annual report (1997- 98). National Research Centre for Weed Science, Jabalpur, India, 1998, 37.

Swain D, Pandey P, Paroha S, Singh M, Yaduraju NT. Allelopathic effect of Amaranthus spinosus on Parthenium hysterophorus. Ann Plant Protect Sci, 2004, 12, 409-413.

Tamado T, Ohlander L, Milberg P. Interference by the weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. with grain sorghum: influence of weed density and duration of competition. Int J Pest Manage, 2002, 48, 183-188.

Taxon: Parthenium hysterophorus L. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2008-07-18. Retrieved 2010-10-29.

Thangavelu K. Report of Leptocentrus taurus Fabricious Membracidae: Homoptera) feeding on Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. Entomon, 1980, 5, 355-356.

Thapar R, Singh NB. Allelopathic effects of Amaranthus viridis on Parthenium hysterophorus. J Indian Bot Soc, 2003, 82, 93-96.

Thontadarya TS, Hiremath IG. Weed as alternate host plants of spotted bollworms (Earias spp.) of cotton. All India Weeds Science Conference, Coimbatore, 1978, 41.

Van Der Laan M, Reinhardt CF, Belz RG, Truter WF, Foxcroft LC, Hurl EK. Interference potential of the perennial grasses Eragrostis curvula, Panicum maximum and Digitaria eriantha with Parthenium hysterophorus. Tropic Grassl, 2008, 42, 88-95.

Vitonde S, Thengane RJ, Ghole VS. Allelopathic effects of Cassia tora and Cassia uniflora on Parthenium hysterophorous L. J Med Plants Res, 2014, 8, 194-196.

Wahab S. Management of Parthenium hysterophorus through an integrated approach initiatives, achievements and research opportunities in India. Proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Parthenium hysterophorus Management, December 5-7, 2005, University of Agricultureal Science, Bangalore, India, 2005, 55-59.

Warshaw EM, Zug KA. Sesquiterpene lactone allergy. Am J Contact Dermat, 1996, 7, 1-23.

Watson AK, Wymore LA. Identifying limiting factors in the biocontrol of weeds. In: New Directions in Biological Control: Alternatives for Suppressing Agricultural Pests and Diseases, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA. 1990, 305-316.

Yadollahi P, Abad AB, Khaje, Asgharipour MR, Amiri A Effect of intercropping on weed control in sustainable agriculture. Intl J Agri Crop Sci, 2014, 7, 683-686.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21746/aps.2017.05.002


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Annals of Plant Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Journal Evaluation form for UGC Inclusion